What is salient information?

Definition

Salient information is given information that the speaker assumes to be in the addressee 's consciousness at the time of the speaker’s utterance .

Generic
Salient information is a kind of
Source

Prince 1981 228

What is a same subject marker?

Definition

A same subject marker is a distinction in the verb morphology of a clause that indicates that the subject is identical to the subject of another clause, such as one of the following:

Generic
A same subject marker is a kind of
Sources

Thompson and Longacre 1985 187, 201

Longacre 1985 254

What is a scalar implicature?

Definition

A scalar implicature is a quantity implicature based on the use of an informationally weak term in an implicational scale .

The use implicates that all similar utterances using an informationally stronger term are not true because, according to the conversational maxim of quantity , a speaker would ordinarily be required to make a stronger, more informative utterance if a true one were available.

Example (English)
  • In the utterance some of the boys went to the party, the word some implicates "not all of the boys went to the party."
  • The words none, some, and all form an implicational scale, in which the use of one form implicates that the use of a stronger form is not possible.
  • Source:

    Levinson 1983 133

  • Generic
    A scalar implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 133–134

    Gazdar 1979 56–59

    What is a scalar property lexical relation?

    Introduction

    Understanding the scalar property lexical relation is important in using words which refer to such things as

    • dimensions, and
    • physical properties.
    Definition

    A scalar property lexical relation is an association between sets of lexical units which refers to the relative values for a property of an object or event as determined against a qualitative standard.

    Examples (English)
  • Scalar property

    Example

    Relative distances

    {here, there, yonder}

    Relative force

    {nudge, push, bulldoze}

    Relative size

    {tiny, small, medium, large, huge}

    Relative time

    {immediately, soon, later}

    Relative temperature

    {cold, cool, lukewarm, warm, hot}

    Relative velocity (human movement)

    {crawl, walk, run}

  • Underlying structure

    A scalar property set has the structure of a scale.

    See:

    What is a lexical relation with a scale structure for other examples of similar lexical relations in English.

    Frames

    Here are some frames for testing and eliciting a scalar property lexical relation:

    • Using a set of objects differing only in a particular property (such as size), ask a language associate to describe and compare the different objects.
    • The <property name> of an <object name, activity name> can range from A, to B, to C…to F.

    What is a scale schema?

    Definition

    A scale schema is an image schema that

    • involves an increase or decrease of physical or metaphorical amount, and
    • consists of any of the following:

      • A closed- or open-ended progression of amount
      • A position in the progression of amount
      • One or more norms of amount
      • A calibration of amount
    Examples
    • Physical amounts
    • Properties in the number system
    • Economic entities such as supply and demand
    Generic
    A scale schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 122–124

    What is a second part?

    Definition

    A second part is the second utterance in an adjacency pair .

    Kinds
    Source

    Levinson 1983 303–304

    What is second person deixis?

    Definition

    Second person deixis is deictic reference to a person or persons identified as addressee .

    Examples (English)
    • you
    • yourself
    • yourselves
    • your
    • yours
    Generic
    Second person deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 263

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 168

    Mish 1991 1060

    Levinson 1983 62

    Fleming 1988 322

    What is a secondary articulation?

    Definition

    A secondary articulation is an additional articulation process that affects vowel or consonant production.

    What is a secondary sense?

    Definition

    A secondary sense is a meaning that is more abstract than a primary sense of a lexeme but still shares some of its semantic components .

    Because it has a different range of reference, its usage contexts and collocates are different from those of a primary sense.

    Example: English

    The word jungle has a primary sense meaning 'land covered with dense growth of trees, tall vegetation, vines, typically in tropical regions, and inhabited by predatory animals.' This is what most people think of when the word jungle is used in isolation.

    However, jungle can also refer to any place with a dense, tangled growth of trees and vegetation, as illustrated in the sentence, 'I need to take care of the jungle in my backyard.' This meaning is a secondary sense of jungle. It shares the semantic components 'plant life' and 'density' with the primary sense of jungle. It does not share the components 'tropical' and 'predatory animals.'

    What is a segment?

    Definition

    A segment is any discrete unit or phone , produced by the vocal apparatus, or a representation of such a unit.

    What is self-initiated repair?

    Definition

    Self-initiated repair is a repair that the speaker of the utterance that needs repair makes without a prompting from another participant.

    Example (English)
  • I need a new bolt for my oil filt— um, PAN.
  • Generic
    A self-initiated repair is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 340–341

    What is self-repair?

    Definition

    Self-repair is a repair that is performed by the speaker of the utterance that needs repair.

    Examples (English)
    • In the following exchange, the last turn is a self-repair:

    • A: I need a new bolt for my oil filter.
    • B: A BOLT?
    • A: I mean for my oil PAN.
    • The following is a self-initiated self-repair .

    • I need a new bolt for my oil filt— um, PAN.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of self-repair:
    Generic
    A self-repair is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 340–341

    What is a semantic component?

    Definition

    A semantic component is a potentially contrastive part of the meaning of a lexical unit .

    Example

    The focal semantic component of execute is “put to death”.

    Kinds

    Here is a table that describes some kinds of semantic components:

    Semantic Component

    Description

    Example

    Contrastive

    Also known as:

    diagnostic, distinctive, essential

    Distinguishes one lexical unit from another

    “Male” is the contrastive semantic component distinguishing man from woman, and boy from girl.

    Shared

    Also known as:

    common

    Occurs in each member of a group of lexical units

    “Human” is a shared component for man, woman, boy, and gi r l.

    What is a semantic role?

    Definition

    A semantic role is the underlying relationship that a participant has with the main verb in a clause .

    Also known as:

    Semantic case, thematic role, theta role (generative grammar), and deep case (case grammar)

    Discussion

    Semantic role is the actual role a participant plays in some real or imagined situation, apart from the linguistic encoding of those situations.

    Example:

    If, in some real or imagined situation, someone named John purposely hits someone named Bill, then John is the agent and Bill is the patient of the hitting event. Therefore, the semantic role of Bill is the same (patient) in both of the following sentences:

    • John hit Bill.
    • Bill was hit by John.

    In both of the above sentences, John has the semantic role of agent.

    Source:

    Payne, T. 1997a 47

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of semantic roles:
    Note:

    The semantic roles most often embodied by the grammatical relations of subject, object and indirect object in natural languages are: agent, force, instrument, experiencer, recipient, and patient. Other semantic roles are more likely to be embodied in oblique (adpositional) phrases or adverbials.

    Source:

    Payne, T. 1997a 48–49

    See also
    • Comparison of semantic role and grammatical relation

    What is semantics?

    Definition

    Here are two senses for semantics:

    1. Semantics is, generally defined, the study of meaning of linguistic expressions.
    2. Semantics is, more narrowly defined, the study of the meaning of linguistic expressions apart from consideration of the effect that pragmatic factors, such as the following, have on the meaning of language in use:

      • Features of the context
      • Conventions of language use
      • The goals of the speaker
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 274

    Leech 1983 5–6

    Lyons 1981 136, 163–164

    Levinson 1983 5–34

    What is a sense?

    Definition

    In LinguaLinks, the word "sense" is used in two ways:

    1. In discussions about data storage and management, a sense is a structural part of a lexical entry . It contains the relevant semantic, grammatical, and anthropological information for a lexical unit .

      Examples:

      "add a sense to the entry"

      "delete the sense"

    2. In discussions about semantic analysis, a sense is the meaning of a lexical unit .

      Examples:

      "define each sense of the lexeme"

      "compare lexically related senses"

    What is a sense group?

    Definition

    A sense group is a collection of senses organized according

    What is a sense type?

    Definition

    A sense type is a classification of a sense on the basis of its conceptual extendedness . In other words, it is a classification of the primary sense of a lexeme and the degree to which another sense is different from the primary sense.

    Sense types provided in the lexical database are as follows:

    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Figurative

    What is a sensory evidential?

    Definition

    A sensory evidential is an evidential signaling that the speaker’s evidence for the truth of his or her statement is derived from the speaker’s own sensory experience.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of sensory evidentials:
    Generic
    A sensory evidential is a kind of
    Source

    Palmer 1986 74–75

    What is a sentence?

    Definition

    A sentence is a grammatical unit that is composed of one or more clauses .

    Discussion

    The meaning of the term sentence may be expanded to include elliptical material and nonproductive items.

    Examples:
    • After lunch. (in reply to When do you start? )
    • Yes.
    • Hello.
    Example (English)
  • I am reading a book.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of sentences:
    Generic
    A sentence is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 319–320

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 206

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 194

    Pike and Pike 1982 456–457

    Mish 1991 1072

    What is a sentence adverb?

    Definition

    A sentence adverb is an adverb that modifies a whole sentence .

    Example (English)
  • Thankfully, he didn’t discover my mistake.
  • Generic
    A sentence adverb is a kind of
    Source

    Schachter 1985 20

    What is a sentence elicitation frame?

    Definition

    A sentence elicitation frame is a syntactic construction that has a blank left in it for eliciting or testing words.

    Examples

    Here are examples of different kinds of sentence elicitation frames:

    • A frame for eliciting nouns

      • This is a dog.
      • This is a pig.
      • This is a _______.
    • A frame for eliciting adjectives

      • A ball is round.
      • A block is square.
      • A pencil is _______.

    What is sentential complementation?

    Definition

    Sentential complementation is a kind of sentence in which one of the arguments of a verb is a clause. That clausal argument is called a complement clause .

    What is a separable affix?

    Definition

    A separable affix is an affix that can be detached from its stem and located elsewhere in a construction .

    Example (German)
  • The affix an- is a separable affix. It is attached to its stem in the verb ankommen ‘to arrive’; but it can be detached from the stem, as in the sentence Ich komme an ‘I arrive’.
  • Generic
    A separable affix is a kind of
    Source

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 207

    What is a sequence?

    Definition

    A sequence is a unit of conversation that consists of two or more adjacent and functionally related turns .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of sequences:
    Sources

    McLaughlin 1984 169

    Hopper, Koch, and Mandelbaum 1986 170

    What is a sequential relation?

    Definition

    A sequential relation is a temporal relation in which the event or state of a latter-expressed proposition is communicated to have occurred after the event or state of a prior-expressed proposition.

    Examples (English)
    • at once
    • soon
    • next time
    Source:

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 262

    Generic
    A sequential relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 261–262

    Longacre 1983 98–99

    Longacre 1985 244

    What is a serial verb construction?

    Definition

    A serial verb construction is a string of verbs or verb phrases within a single clause that

    Example (Twi)
    Kofi de pono no baae
    Kofi take_PAST pono the come_PAST
    ‘Kofi brought the table.’
    Source:

    Sebba 1987 1

    Generic
    A serial verb construction is a kind of
    Sources

    Noonan 1985 55, 76–77

    Sebba 1987 1-2, 86–87

    What is setting information?

    Definition

    Setting information is a kind of nonevent in discourse that provides locative, temporal and circumstantial information about a sequence of events.

    Examples
    • It was a dark and stormy night. Suddenly a shot rang out. (The first sentence contains temporal setting information.)
    • Every tree and blade of grass was dripping, and the road shone like a river. The Pedestrian wasted no time on the landscape, but set out at once... (The first sentence contains circumstantial and locative setting information.)
    Sources

    Grimes, J. E. 1975

    What is silence?

    Definition

    Silence is the absence of speech.

    Discussion

    Silence is assigned different significance by conversation analysts depending on such factors as the following:

    • Its length
    • Where it occurs in a conversation
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of silence:
    Source

    Levinson 1983 298–299

    What is a similar pair?

    Definition

    A similar pair is two words in which

    Example (Kaiwa, Brazil)

    The phonetically similar segments being contrasted are [p] and [b].

    • [opa] ‘it is finished’
    • [aba] ‘place’
    See also

    What is a similarity relation?

    Definition

    A similarity relation is an interpropositional relation indicating that the events or states expressed in the propositions have a likeness of function or import.

    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of items that indicate similarity relations:

    • similarly
    • likewise
    • in the same way
    Generic
    A similarity relation is a kind of
    Source

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 247

    What is a simile?

    Definition

    A simile is a comparison between two things.

    It is signaled overtly; in English, a simile is expressed by the words like or as.

    Example (English)
  • He had a posture like a question mark.
  • Source:

    Corbett 1971 479

  • Generic
    A simile is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 479

    Beekman and Callow 1974 127

    Mish 1991 1098

    What is a simple sentence?

    Definition

    A simple sentence is a sentence containing one main clause and no subordinate clauses .

    Generic
    A simple sentence is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 209

    Crystal 1985 280

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 719

    Mish 1991 1099

    What is a simulfix?

    Definition

    A simulfix is a change or replacement of vowels or consonants (usually vowels) which changes the meaning of a word.

    Examples (English)
    • Eat in past tense becomes ate.
    • Tooth becomes teeth when plural .
    Generic

    What is a simultaneous relation?

    Definition

    A simultaneous relation is a temporal relation in which the events or states of proposition(s) are communicated as occurring at the same time.

    Examples (English)
    • Mrs. Brown bought groceries while Mr. Brown got gas for the car.
    • Bob simultaneously talked on the phone and washed dishes.
    • Mr. Smith was telling the same old joke; meanwhile, Mr. Jones tried to look interested.
    Sources:

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 262

    Fleming 1988 182

    Generic
    A simultaneous relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 262

    Fleming 1988 182

    Longacre 1983 95–96

    Longacre 1985 243

    What is a sincerity condition?

    Definition

    A sincerity condition is the psychological state of the speaker concerning the propositional content of an illocutionary act .

    The sincere or insincere expression of this state necessarily accompanies all illocutionary acts, except for an act having a declarative illocutionary point , so that an act having

    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 18–19

    What is singular number?

    Definition

    Singular number is number that refers to one member of a designated class.

    Examples (English)
    • The singular form bat as opposed to bats.
    • Mass nouns may be indicated by singular number, such as the singular form sugar.
    Generic
    Singular number is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 245

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 210

    What is a singulative?

    Definition

    A singulative is a grammatical form, adjunct, or variant of a word that expresses the individuation of a single referent from a group or mass.

    Example (English)
  • The addition of flake to snow produces the word snowflake, a form that expresses the individuation of its referent.
  • Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 198

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 210

    What is a situational elicitation frame?

    Definition

    A situational elicitation frame is a hypothetical situation that is constructed to help you constrain and control what you elicit.

    Examples
    • A frame for eliciting verbs

      To find the vernacular expression for the English word language associate the following story: rescue, you tell a

    • “A child was fishing by the river bank. The bank gave way under the child; she fell into the river and was immediately carried into the current, endangering her life. Her father heard her screams for help and ran to his canoe, paddled down to her and pulled her into the canoe.”
    • Then you ask the language associate “What happened?” or “What did the father do?”

      The language associate gives you one or more vernacular expressions for “He rescued her.”

    • A frame for eliciting expressions

      To find out appropriate vernacular greetings, you ask a language associate the following questions:

    • “What would you say to someone (as a greeting) if you met them coming toward you on the road? What about at the market? At the river? At someone else's house? At your house? At their house?”
    • The language associate gives you one or more vernacular expressions for greetings.

    What is a situationally evoked entity?

    Definition

    A situationally evoked entity is a referent that is given information because of the prominence of the referent in the extralinguistic context.

    Example (English)
  • Could you shut the door?
  • The door is previously unmentioned, but it is given information because there is only one door and its existence is known.

    Generic
    A situationally evoked entity is a kind of
    Source

    Prince 1981 233, 236

    What is social deixis?

    Definition

    Social deixis is reference to the social characteristics of, or distinctions between, the participants or referents in a speech event.

    Example
  • The distinction, found in many Indo-European languages, between familiar and polite second person pronouns is an expression of social deixis .
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of social deixis:
    Generic
    Social deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 63, 93

    Fillmore 1975 76

    What is solidarity?

    Definition

    Solidarity is a scale of perceived like-mindedness or similarity of behavioral disposition between a speaker and addressee deriving from their similar

    • backgrounds
    • acquaintance, or
    • personal characteristics, such as sex.

    In some languages, solidarity affects the choice of expressions of social deixis .

    Example
  • The choice between using familiar or polite second person pronouns in many Indo-European languages, such as tu and vous, indicates the level of solidarity between a speaker and addressee.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of solidarity:
    Source

    Brown, R. and Gilman 1960 258

    What is a solutionhood relation?

    Definition

    A solutionhood relation is an interpropositional relation in which a proposition(s) is presented as an answer or remedy for a problem, such as one of the following, communicated in another proposition(s):

    • A lack of information
    • A desire
    • An intellectual issue
    • A need
    • A calamity
    • A frustration
    Generic
    A solutionhood relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 49–52

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 88–89

    What is the sonority scale?

    Definition

    The sonority scale is a list of phonetic segments showing the relative resonance of phonetic segments in relation to other segments.

    Also known as:

    The scale of consonantal strength

    Discussion

    Sonority is the resonance of a sound in relation to other sounds. A sonority scale shows the sonority of a sound in relation to other sounds.

    Diagram

    Here is a diagram that shows the relative sonority of different phones :

    Source

    Burquest and Payne 1993 101

    What is source as a participant role?

    Definition

    Source is the participant role of the referent from whom a message ultimately comes, especially in the case in which the referent is distinct from the speaker .

    Example (English)
  • The steward relayed the pilot ’s instruction: “You are to fasten your seat belts now.”
  • Source:

    Levinson 1983 72

  • Generic
    Source is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 68–69, 72–73

    Longacre 1983 161

    What is source as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Source is the semantic role of the following referents:

    • The place of origin (with verbs of motion, locomotion, and propulsion)
    • The entity from which a physical sensation emanates (with verbs of sensation, attention, and speech)
    • The original owner in a transfer (with verbs of acquisition, transfer, and grab)
    Examples (English)
    • As the place of origin:

      • John fell off the chair. (with a motion verb)

      • The baby crawled from the kitchen to the door. (with a locomotion verb)

      • John threw the knife into the box. (with a propulsion verb)

        Note:

        With propulsion verbs, the source is coreferential with the agent.

    • As the entity from which a physical sensation emanates:

      • John smelled the odor of onions. (with a sensation verb)

      • The people watched the performance of the dancers. (with an attention verb)

      • The mother told her child a story. (with a speech verb)

        Note:

        With speech verbs, the source is coreferential with the agent.

    • As the original owner in a transfer:

      • John obtained an application form from the office. (with an acquisition verb)

      • John bought the book from Tom. (with a transfer verb)

      • John grabbed the book from Tom. (with a grab verb)

    Generic
    Source is a kind of
    Source

    Longacre 1983 161–163

    What is a source domain?

    Definition

    A source domain is a concept that is metaphorically used to provide the means of understanding another concept.

    Examples (English)
  • A verticality schema , as a source domain, is metaphorically applied to the concept of amount in the

    more-as-up

    and

    less-as-down

    metaphors expressed in the following sentences:

    • The crime rate keeps rising.
    • The number of books published each year keeps going up.
    • That stock has fallen again.
    • Our sales dropped last year.

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. 1987 276

  • Kind
    Here is a kind of source domain:
    Source

    Lakoff, G. 1987 276–277, 288

    What is a speaker?

    Definition

    A speaker is the utterer of a message.

    Discussion

    A speaker is typically the deictic center of his or her own deictic references. These are grammaticalized in first person morphemes.

    Generic
    A speaker is a kind of
    Sources

    Fillmore 1975 40

    Levinson 1983 68

    What is a specialized figurative text?

    Definition

    A specialized figurative text is a text belonging to one of several creative genres that makes extensive use of stylized, poetic, and figurative language.

    Kinds
    • Jokes
    • Poems
    • Proverbs
    • Puns
    • Riddles
    • Sayings
    • Songs

    What is a specification relation?

    Definition

    A specification relation is an elaboration relation in which a proposition provides more information about another proposition by restating it more narrowly.

    Example (English)
  • John is sick; he has the flu.
  • Source:

    Dijk 1981 269

    Kind
    Here is a kind of specification relation:
    Generic
    A specification relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Dijk 1981 269–270, 278–279

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 96–97

    Hollenbach 1975 18

    Longacre 1983 120

    What is specificity?

    Definition

    Specificity is a kind of definiteness, expressed by the interpretation of or grammatical marking on a noun or noun phrase , indicating that the speaker presumably knows the identity of the referent(s) .

    Examples (English)
  • The following sentence has the interpretation that the speaker has a particular Norwegian in mind:

  • Minna wants to meet the Norwegian.
  • Source:

    Hawkins, J. 1978 204

    Generic
    A specific is a kind of
    Sources

    Anderson, S. 1985 179

    Hawkins, J. 1978 203–204

    What is speculative mood?

    Definition

    Speculative mood is an epistemic mood that signals that the speaker judges from certain facts that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance is possibly true.

    Example (English)
  • There are two routes; he may have taken the high road.
  • Generic
    Speculative mood is a kind of
    Source

    Palmer 1986 59–60

    What is a speech act?

    Definition

    A speech act is an act that a speaker performs when making an utterance , including the following:

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of speech acts:
    Generic
    A speech act is a kind of
    Sources

    Searle 1969 22–25

    Crystal 1985 285

    What is a standard implicature?

    Definition

    A standard implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressee 's assumption that the speaker is being cooperative by directly observing the conversational maxims .

    Example (English)
  • In the following exchange, A assumes that B is being cooperative, truthful, adequately informative, relevant, and clear. Thus, A can infer that B thinks A can get fuel at the garage:

  • A: I’ve just run out of petrol.
  • B: Oh; there’s a garage just around the corner.
  • Generic
    A standard implicature is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 104

    What is the state of the glottis?

    Definition

    The state of the glottis is the amount of

    • vibration in the vocal folds, and
    • closure in the glottis .

    What is a statement?

    Definition

    Here are two senses for statement:

    1. A statement is an illocutionary act that has the assertive illocutionary point of saying that some state of affairs is true.
    2. A statement is a sentence having a form that is typically used to express such illocutionary acts (such as an English declarative sentence which has a subject followed by a verb ).
    Kind
    Here is a kind of statement:
    Generic
    A statement is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 286

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 218

    What is a stative verb?

    Definition

    A stative verb is a verb that expresses a state of affairs or being rather than action.

    Stative verbs differ from verbs of action not just in meaning but in formal structure and usage.

    Discussion

    Some verbs have both senses that express

    • a state of affairs or being, and
    • action.
    Examples (English)
    • be
    • concern
    • have
    • know
    Sources

    Crystal 1991 326

    Elson and Pickett 1988 99

    What is status?

    Definition

    Status is a scale of social standing that is often realized in differing socially deictic linguistic forms.

    Examples (French, German)
  • The choice between the second person pronouns tu and vous in French and du and Sie in German indicates same or differing status between the speaker and addressee.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of status:
    Source

    Lyons 1977b 576–577

    What is a stem?

    Definition

    A stem is the root or roots of a word, together with any derivational affixes , to which inflectional affixes are added.

    Discussion

    A stem consists minimally of a root , but may be analyzable into a root plus derivational morphemes . A stem may require an inflectional operation (often involving a prefix or suffix) in order to ground it into discourse and make it a fully understandable word. If a stem does not occur by itself in a meaningful way in a language, it is referred to as a bound morpheme .

    Examples (English)
  • The verbs tie and untie are both stems.
  • The inflectional third person singular suffix -s may be added to the stems to form ties and unties.
  • Generic
    A stem is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 287

    Mish 1991 1154

    What is stem modification?

    Definition

    Stem modification is a morphological process whereby an affix occurs simultaneously with a root or stem .

    The kind of affix involved in this process is called a simulfix .

    Example (English)

    The tense/aspect morpheme in the English verb paradigm of 'to sing' occurs simultaneously with the verb stem:

    • sing
    • sang
    • sung

    What is still tense?

    Definition

    Still tense is an absolute tense carrying the presupposition that an event or state held before the moment of utterance .

    In positive declarative clauses , still tense asserts that the event or state holds at the moment of utterance.

    Example (Luganda)
  • The affix -kya expresses still tense, as in the utterance mu-kya-tudde ‘you still sit’.
  • Generic
    Still tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 53–55

    What is a stop?

    Definition

    A stop is a sound produced with a complete closure of the vocal tract.

    Examples

    p, b, k, t, j

    What is strength of illocutionary point?

    Definition

    Strength of illocutionary point is the strength of assertion of, commitment to bring about, direction to another to bring about, or expression of a psychological state toward the propositional content of an illocutionary act .

    Discussion

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 , to whom are due the terms degree of strength of illocutionary point and degree of strength of sincerity conditions , allow that there is generally a correlation between the two terms. However, they cite requesting and ordering as illocutionary acts that show a distinction between the two strengths. Ordering, in their analysis, has a greater degree of strength of illocutionary point than requesting, due at least in part to the institutional authority of the orderer. But they hold that ordering does not necessarily express a commitment to a stronger accompanying psychological state of desire; that is, requesting and ordering need not have a different degree of strength of the sincerity conditions, despite their different degree of strength of illocutionary point. Thus, they distinguish the two terms.

    Examples

    The second act in each pair has a greater degree of strength of illocutionary point than the first:

    • Suggesting and swearing
    • Promising and vowing
    • Requesting and demanding
    • Approving and endorsing
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 19–20, 41–43

    What is strength of sincerity conditions?

    Definition

    Strength of sincerity conditions is the strength of the psychological state that the speaker commits to in employing a particular illocutionary force .

    Discussion

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 , to whom are due the terms degree of strength of illocutionary point and degree of strength of sincerity conditions, allow that there is generally a correlation between the two. However, they cite requesting and ordering as illocutionary acts that show a distinction between the two strengths. Ordering, in their analysis, has a greater degree of strength of illocutionary point than requesting, due at least in part to the institutional authority of the orderer. But they add that ordering does not necessarily express a commitment to a stronger accompanying psychological state of desire; that is, requesting and ordering need not have a different degree of strength of sincerity conditions, despite their different degree of strength of illocutionary point. Thus, they distinguish the two terms.

    Examples

    The second act in each pair has a greater degree of strength of sincerity conditions than the first:

    • Suggesting and swearing
    • Promising and vowing
    • Requesting and demanding
    • Approving and endorsing
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 19–20, 41–43

    What is stress?

    Definition

    Stress is an increase in the activity of the vocal apparatus of a speaker.

    What is a strong epistemic qualification?

    Definition

    A strong epistemic qualification is an epistemic qualification that signals the highest degree of certainty.

    Examples (English)
    • I know that …
    • It’s certain that …
    • Undoubtedly …
    Generic
    A strong epistemic qualification is a kind of
    Source

    Caton 1981 87

    What is a structural metaphor?

    Definition

    A structural metaphor is a conventional metaphor in which one concept is understood and expressed in terms of another structured, sharply defined concept.

    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of the

    argument-as-war

    structural metaphor:

    • Your claims are indefensible.
    • He attacked every weak point in my argument.
    • His criticisms were right on target.
    • I demolished his argument.

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 4

    Generic
    A structural metaphor is a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 4–5, 61

    What is a subentry in a lexical database?

    Definition

    A subentry is a unit in the lexical database representing a lexeme that is made up of more than one morpheme , and is lexically related to one or more major entries .

    While related to the major entry(s), the subentry contains its own phonological, semantic, grammatical, and anthropological information. The subentry usually has a meaning that is greater than the sum of its component morphemes.

    Kinds
    The kinds of subentries in a lexical database are:
    Example: Batad Ifugao (Philippines)

    The subentry inadangyan is a derivative of the major entry adangyan, which is shown below. The form inadangyan appears as a cross reference in the major entry and also as its own entry.

  • adangyan 1 n. A rich person, measured in terms of important legacies held. 2 adj. Rich, of a person, as described above. inadangyan (derv.) One's riches; one's relative worth.
  • ...
  • inadangyan (from adangyan + -iN-) n. One's riches; one's relative worth, reckoned in terms of inherited holdings.
  • Source:

    Newell and Poligon 1993 103, 324

    Nonexamples

    Subentries are not

    • homophonous forms
    • minimal pairs, or
    • other interesting bits of information not closely related structurally to the main entry.

    What is a subject?

    Definition

    A subject is a grammatical relation that exhibits certain independent syntactic properties, such as the following:

    The identification of the subject relation may be further confirmed by finding significant overlap with similar subject relations previously established in other languages. This may be done by analyzing correspondence between translation equivalents .

    Generic
    A subject is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 293

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 224

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 205

    Mish 1991 1174

    Pike and Pike 1982 458–459

    Andrews, A. 1985 68–69, 103–117

    Comrie 1989 66

    What is a subject complement?

    Definition

    A subject complement is a complement that is used to predicate a description of the subject of a clause .

    Examples (English)
    • Ambrose was bishop.
    • Ambrose was holy.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of subject complements:
    Generic
    A subject complement is a kind of
    Sources

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 55, 737, 742

    Crystal 1985 :60

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 182

    Mish 1991 926

    What is subjunctive mood?

    Definition

    Subjunctive mood is a mood that typically signals irrealis meanings, such as

    • potentiality
    • uncertainty
    • prediction
    • obligation, and
    • desire.

    It most typically occurs in a subordinate clause , but may occur outside of one.

    Generic
    Subjunctive mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Nida 1949 169

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 205

    Bybee 1985 186

    Crystal 1980 338

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 224

    Lyons 1977b 817, 848

    Mish 1991 1174

    What is a subordinate clause?

    Definition

    A subordinate clause is a clause that is embedded as a constituent of a matrix sentence and that functions like a noun , adjective , or adverb in the resultant complex sentence .

    Generic
    A subordinate clause is a kind of
    Kinds
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 76, 224

    Foley, W. and Van Valin 1984 243

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 172

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 44, 719, 991

    Mish 1991 1175

    Crystal 1980 106, 129

    What is a subordinating conjunction?

    Definition

    A subordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of another. The subordinating conjunction typically marks the incorporated constituent.

    Example (English)
  • Listen when I speak to you.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of subordinating conjunctions:
    Generic
    A subordinating conjunction is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 294

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 224

    Anderson, S. 1985 30

    Schachter 1985 46, 50

    Mish 1991 1175

    What is a substance metaphor?

    Definition

    A substance metaphor is an ontological metaphor in which an abstraction, such as an event, activity, emotion, or idea, is represented as material.

    Examples (English)
  • Here are some examples of the activity-as-substance metaphor:

    • There was a lot of good sprinting in the race.
    • I couldn’t do much sprinting until the end.
  • Adapted from:

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 31

    Generic
    A substance metaphor is a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 25, 31

    What is a substantive?

    Definition

    A substantive is a broad classification of words that includes nouns and nominals .

    Discussion

    The term substantive is extended by some to include pronouns .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of substantives:
    Generic
    A substantive is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 295

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 225

    Mish 1991 1176

    What is subtraction?

    Definition

    Subtraction is a morphological process of modification that removes one or more segments from a root or stem .

    Example (French)
  • In French, the masculine form of adjectives is analyzed by some as being produced from the feminine form by the removal of a consonant, thereby exhibiting a process of consonant subtraction.
  • Generic
    A subtraction is a kind of
    Source

    Matthews 1991 142

    What is success of fit?

    Definition

    Success of fit is a correspondence between the state of affairs described by the propositional content of an illocutionary act and the state of affairs in the world.

    Examples

    Here are some examples of success of fit:

    • The truthfulness of an assertive act’s contents
    • The status of a commissive act’s contents as kept by the speaker
    • The fulfillment of a directive act’s contents by the person from whom compliance is sought
    • A declarative act that is successfully performed
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 95–98

    What is a suffix?

    Definition

    A suffix is an affix that is attached to the end of a root or stem .

    Example (English)

    The past tense suffix -ed attaches to the end of the stem walk to form the past tense verb walked.

    Generic
    A suffix is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 340

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 226

    Mish 1991 1179

    What is suffixation?

    Definition

    Suffixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is attached to the end of a stem .

    The kind of affix involved in this process is called a suffix .

    Example (English)

    The past tense suffix -ed attaches to the end of the stem walk to form the past tense verb walked.

    Generic
    A suffixation is a kind of

    What is a summary relation?

    Definition

    A summary relation is a contraction relation in which a proposition(s) repeats, in abbreviated form, the information of a group of propositions previously expressed.

    Generic
    A summary relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 72

    Beekman and Callow 1974 299

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 97

    What is a summons-answer sequence?

    Definition

    A summons-answer sequence is a pre-sequence that consists of a that turn

    • seeks attention, and
    • grants it, opening the way for the talk to follow.
    Generic
    A summons-answer sequence is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 309–310, 345–346

    What is superessive case?

    Definition

    Superessive case is a case that expresses location on the referent of the noun it marks.

    It has the meaning of "on" or "upon."

    Discussion

    The term superessive case is used especially in studies of Finno-Ugric grammar.

    Generic
    Superessive case is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 207

    Gove 1966 2293

    What is superior status?

    Definition

    Superior status is social deixis that encodes high status.

    Examples (French, German)
  • Some uses of the second person pronoun vous in French and Sie in German indicate the superior status of the addressee .
  • Generic
    A superior is a kind of
    Source

    Brown, R. and Gilman 1960 256–257

    What is supplemental information in a definition?

    Definition

    Supplemental information is an optional part of the definition of a lexical unit , containing culturally or logically expected information.

    Examples (English)
  • Lexical unit

    Analytic definition

    Supplemental info

    clap

    To strike the palms of the hands together,

    as in applauding.

    dog

    A domesticated canine,

    raised in many breeds, commonly kept as a house pet.

    execute

    To put to death as in accordance with a legally imposed sentence,

    typically by means of the electric chair, hanging, firing squad, or lethal injection.

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of supplemental information:
    • Optional antecedents:

      • Cause
      • Condition
      • Grounds
      • Motivation
      • Reason
    • Optional consequents:

      • Consequence
      • Effect
      • Purpose
      • Result
    • Typical associated emotion
    • Typical attribute or characteristic
    • Typical connotation
    • Typical instrument
    • Typical means
    • Typical sociocultural context

    What is suppletion?

    Definition

    Suppletion is the replacement of one stem with another, resulting in an allomorph of a morpheme which has no phonological similarity to the other allomorphs.

    Example (English)
    • The following table illustrates stem suppletion:

      Morphological process

      Regular, nonsuppletive stem

      Suppletive stem

      Addition of past tense suffix

      walk—walked

      go—went

      Addition of comparative or superlative suffix

      big—bigger— biggest

      good—better—best

    • The following table illustrates affix suppletion:

      Morphological process

      Regular, nonsuppletive affix

      Suppletive affix

      Addition of plural suffix

      cat—cats

      cherub—cherubim ox —oxen

    Kinds

    Here are some kinds of suppletion:

    • Stem suppletion
    • Affix suppletion
    Generic
    Suppletion is a kind of

    What is a suprafix?

    Definition

    A suprafix is a kind of affix in which a suprasegmental is superimposed on one or more syllables of the root or stem, signalling a particular morphosyntactic operation .

    This is a morphological process .

    Example (English)

    The placement of stress in the following words signals the difference between a noun and a related verb:

    • 'produce, n.
    • pro'duce, v.
    Examples (Moba-Gur, Togo)

    Suprafixes of tone occur on verb roots. The two suprafixes use different tones on different groups of verbs. In the following group of verbs, the high to low tone is the perfective morpheme. The mid to high tone is the imperfective morpheme.

    Perfective

    Imperfective

  • †u bod
  • he PERF.get.lost
  • 'he got lost'
  • Øu bod
  • he IMP.get.lost
  • 'he was getting lost'
  • †u pid
  • he PERF.dust
  • 'he dusted'
  • Øu pid
  • he IMP.dust
  • 'he was dusting'
  • †u jaand
  • he PERF.pray
  • 'he prayed'
  • Øu jaand
  • he IMP.pray
  • 'he was praying'
  • Generic
    A suprafix is a kind of

    What is a suprasegmental?

    Definition

    A suprasegmental is a vocal effect that extends over more than one sound segment in an utterance, such as pitch, stress, or juncture pattern.

    In

    SIL

    contexts, suprasegmental is often used for

    • tone
    • vowel length, and
    • features like nasalization and aspiration.

    What is switch reference?

    Definition

    Switch reference is a grammatical category with the following features:

    • It signals the identity or nonidentity of the referent of an argument of one clause , usually its subject , with an argument of another clause, which is likewise usually the subject.

      Switch reference functions to avoid ambiguity of reference; for example, it may distinguish between two referents that are third person and that, thus, may not be otherwise distinguished on the verb.

    • It relates clauses, usually adjacent, that may be subordinate or coordinate to one another.
    • It is expressed

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of switch reference:
    Generic
    Switch reference is a kind of
    Source

    Haiman and Munro 1983 ix–xiii

    What is a switching pause?

    Definition

    A switching pause is silence between turns .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of switching pauses:
    Generic
    A switching pause is a kind of
    Source

    McLaughlin 1984 111–113

    What is a syllabic consonant?

    Definition

    A syllabic consonant is a phonetic element that normally patterns as a consonant, but may fill a vowel slot in a syllable.

    Examples
    • The final nasals in /pattern/
    • The final nasals in /bottom/

    What is syllabification?

    Definition

    Syllabification is the process in which consonants function on the periphery of a syllable.

    What is a syllable?

    Definition

    A syllable is a unit of sound composed of

    • a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel), and
    • the consonants that cluster around this central peak.
    Discussion

    Syllable structure, which is the combination of allowable segments and typical sound sequences, is language specific.

    Parts

    Parts

    Description

    Optionality

    Onset

    Initial segment of a syllable

    Optional

    Rhyme

    Core of a syllable, consisting of a nucleus and coda (see below)

    Obligatory

    – Nucleus

    Central segment of a syllable

    Obligatory

    – Coda

    Closing segment of a syllable

    Optional

    Example (English)

    Here is an example of the syllable structure of the English word limit:

    Kinds

    Here are some kinds of syllables:

    Kind

    Description

    Example

    Heavy

    Has a branching rhyme. All syllables with a branching nucleus (long vowels) are considered heavy. Some languages treat syllables with a short vowel (nucleus followed by a consonant (coda) as heavy.

    CV:C, CVCC, CVC

    Light

    Has a non-branching rhyme (short vowel). Some languages treat syllables with a short vowel(nucleus) followed by a consonant (coda) as light.

    CV, CVC

    Closed

    Ends with a consonant coda.

    CVC, CVCC, VC

    Open

    Has no final consonant

    CV

    Diagram

    Here is a diagram of a syllable:

    See also

    What is a syllepsis?

    Definition

    A syllepsis is the use of a single word in such a way that it is syntactically related to two or more words elsewhere in the sentence , but has a different meaning in relation to each of the other words.

    Example (English)
  • There is a certain type of woman who’d rather press grapes than clothes.
  • Source:

    Advertisement cited by Corbett 1971 483

  • Generic
    A syllepsis is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 483

    Mish 1991 1195

    What is symbolic usage?

    Definition

    Symbolic usage is the use of a deictic expression in such a way that its interpretation depends only on general knowledge of the extralinguistic situation, rather than on physical (visual, and so forth) monitoring of it.

    Examples (English)
    • This city is really beautiful.
    • We can’t afford a holiday this year.
    Source:

    Levinson 1983 65

    See also

    What is gestural usage?

    Sources

    Fillmore 1975 40

    Levinson 1983 65

    What is a synecdoche?

    Definition

    A synecdoche is a figure of speech in which the one of the following (or its reverse) is expressed:

    • A part stands for a whole
    • An individual stands for a class
    • A material stands for a thing
    Examples (English)
    • Fifty head referring to 50 head of cattle
    • Cat referring to a lion
    Generic
    A synecdoche is a kind of
    Sources

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 36

    Mish 1991 1197

    Neufeldt 1991 1358

    What is a synonym lexical relation?

    Introduction

    Discovering and understanding the use of words which have the lexical relation synonym is important for the accurate and effective choice of words in communication and translation.

    Definition

    A synonym lexical relation is a relationship between two or more lexical units which have identical core semantic components and which differ only with respect to their supplemental or peripheral components.

    Source:

    Cruse 1986 267

    Kinds
  • Synonym type

    Definition

    Example

    Stylistic (most common)

    A lexical unit that has a similar range of reference but is differentiated by speaker intention, the audience, and the situation.

    {happy, glad, joyful}

    Loanword

    A nearly synonymous lexical unit, borrowed from another language to fill what is perceived to be a semantic gap.

    The word kabunyan means 'sky' in Tuwali Ifugao, but the word langit which means 'sky' in Tagalog has been borrowed to refer to 'heaven.'

    Dialectal

    Different lexical units that are part of the vocabulary of different dialects but have very similar ranges of reference.

    {flashlight (American English), torch (British English)}

  • Underlying structure

    The underlying structure of a synonym set is a simple set .

    Frame

    Here is a frame for testing and eliciting a synonym lexical relation set:

    • X is Y.

    What is a syntactic category?

    Definition

    A syntactic category is a set of words and/or phrases in a language which share a significant number of common characteristics. The classification is based on similar structure and sameness of distribution (the structural relationships between these elements and other items in a larger grammatical structure), and not on meaning. In generative grammar, a syntactic category is symbolized by a node label in a constituent structure tree.

    Also known as:

    Syntactic class

    Kinds

    There are major and minor syntactic categories:

    Major categories
    • All phrasal syntactic categories

      Examples:

      NP (noun phrase), VP (verb phrase), PP (prepositional phrase)

    • Word-level syntactic categories that serve as heads of phrasal syntactic categories

      Examples:

      noun, verb

      See:

      lexical category

    Minor categories
    • Categories that do not project to a phrasal level

      Example:

      Yes-No question markers

    Contrast

    Contrast syntactic category with the following:

    • Grammatical category (person, number, tense, aspect, mood, gender, case, voice...)
    • Grammatical class (transitive and intransitive verbs; count and mass nouns…)
    • Grammatical relations (subject, direct object, indirect object…)
    • Functional categories (agent, patient, instrument…; topic, comment…; definite NP)

    Note: The terms grammatical category and grammatical class have also been used as synonyms for ‘part of speech’.

    Source

    Bickford and Daly 1996 F4, page 2

    What is a syntactic function?

    Definition

    A syntactic function is the grammatical relationship of one constituent to another within a syntactic construction.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of syntactic functions:
    Source

    Crystal 1985 129

    What is a syntagmatic lexical relation?

    Definition

    A syntagmatic lexical relation is a culturally determined pattern of association between pairs of lexical units (A1-B1, A2-B2, A3-B3…) where the

    • two members of each pair (A1 and B1)

      • have compatible semantic components
      • are in a fixed syntactic and semantic relationship to each other, and
      • are typically associated with each other, and
    • corresponding members of each pair (A1, A2, A3…)

      • belong to the same lexical category
      • fill the same syntactic position in a syntactic construction, and
      • have the same semantic function.
    Examples (English)
    • Actor
    • Undergoer
    • Location
    • Instrument
    • Benefactor
    • Goal
    • Feel
    • Sound
    • Degradation
    • Intensification
    • Material composition

    For more information on the lexical relations listed above, refer to Coward and Grimes 1995 .

    Structure

    Syntagmatic lexical relations are structured in sets of pairs .