What is a tag question?

Definition

A tag question is a constituent that is added after a statement in order to request confirmation or disconfirmation of the statement from the addressee . Often it expresses the bias of the speaker toward one answer.

A tag question often includes a

Examples (English, German, French)
  • The English isn’t he?, as in the following sentence:

    He’s a pleasant fellow, isn’t he?

  • The German nicht wahr? ‘not true?’
  • The French n’est ce pas? ‘is it not?’
Source:

Sadock and Zwicky 1985 183

Generic
A tag question is a kind of
Sources

Crystal 1985 304

Hartmann and Stork 1972 233

Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 811

Mish 1991 1201

Sadock and Zwicky 1985 182–183

What is a tag statement?

Definition

A tag statement is an elliptical statement that follows and echoes a main clause statement.

Example (English)

Here is an example of a tag statement:

  • In English, a subject noun or pronoun followed or preceded by an auxiliary verb as in the following example is a tag statement:

  • He made a good showing, did Bill.
  • Generic
    A tag statement is a kind of
    Source

    Crystal 1985 304

    What is a target?

    Definition

    A target is the ultimate intended recipient of a speaker 's message, especially when distinct from the addressee .

    Example (English)
  • In the following example, Billie is the target, but not the addressee:

  • Billie is to come in now.
  • Generic
    A target is a kind of
    Sources

    Gazdar 1979 , cited by Levinson 1983 69

    What is a target domain?

    Definition

    A target domain is a semantic domain that is structured and understood metaphorically in terms of another domain.

    Examples (English)
  • Here are some examples of the domain of quantity, to which the verticality schema is applied in the

    more-as-up

    and

    less-as-down

    metaphors expressed in the following:

    • The crime rate keeps rising.
    • The number of books published each year keeps going up.
    • That stock has fallen again.
    • Our sales dropped last year.

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. 1987 276

  • Source

    Lakoff, G. 1987 276–277, 288

    What is a temporal relation?

    Definition

    A temporal relation is an interpropositional relation that communicates the simultaneity or ordering in time of events or states.

    Examples (English)
    • Subordinating conjunctions such as when or while
    • Meanwhile
    • At that time
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of temporal relations:
    Generic
    A temporal relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1983 94

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 80–81

    What is tense?

    Definition

    Tense is a grammatical category, typically marked on the verb , that deictically refers to the time of the event or state denoted by the verb in relation to some other temporal reference point.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of tenses:
    Generic
    Tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 352–353

    Givón 1984 272

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 235

    Nida 1949 167

    Comrie 1985b 9

    Mish 1991 1216

    What is a text?

    Definition

    A text is a sequence of paragraphs that represents an extended unit of speech.

    Kinds
    Here are some different kinds of text genres:

    What is a text genre?

    Definition

    A text genre is a type of written or spoken discourse.

    Discussion

    Texts are classified into genres on the basis of the intent of the communicator.

    Examples

    Here is a table showing some text genres and the communicator's intent for each genre.

  • Text genre

    Communicator's intent is to . . .

    Narrative

    Tell about a sequence of events.

    Procedural

    Give instructions on how to do something.

    Expository

    Explain something.

    Hortatory

    Encourage someone to do something.

    Descriptive

    List the characteristics of something.

  • Source

    Larson 1984 365–366

    What is a textually evoked entity?

    Definition

    A textually evoked entity is a referent that is given information because it has been previously included in the text.

    Example (English)
  • A guy I work with says he knows your sister.
  • Since the referent of he has been previously mentioned in the text, it is a textually evoked entity.

    Source:

    Prince 1981 233

    Generic
    A textually evoked entity is a kind of
    Source

    Prince 1981 233, 236

    What is a theme?

    Definition

    A theme is the initial constituent of a sentence , viewed in relation to a more highly communicative theme or focus elsewhere in the sentence.

    Examples (English)
    • The man is coming.
    • Under no circumstances will he come.
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 237

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1361–1363

    Crystal 1985 308

    What is a thesaurus category?

    Definition

    A thesaurus category is an etic semantic category.

    What is third person deixis?

    Definition

    Third person deixis is deictic reference to a referent(s) not identified as the speaker or addressee .

    Examples (English)
    • he
    • she
    • they
    • the third person singular verb suffix -s

      He sometimes flies.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of third person deixis:
    Generic
    Third person deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 263

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 168

    Mish 1991 1227

    Levinson 1983 62

    Anderson, S. and Keenan 1985 261–262

    Fleming 1988 322

    What is a third turn repair?

    Definition

    A third turn repair is a self-repair in a third conversational turn .

    It is preceded by an initial turn in which the repairable item occurs and another turn in which the addressee or audience prompts for repair or produces an inadequate response.

    Example (English)
  • The third turn of the following exchange is a third turn repair:

  • A: I need a new bolt for my oil filter.
  • B: A BOLT?
  • A: I mean for my oil PAN.
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of third turn repair:
    Generic
    A third turn repair is a kind of
    Source

    Moerman 1988 76

    What is time as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Time is the semantic role of the temporal placement of an event.

    Example (English)
  • The whistle will sound at noon.
  • Generic
    Time is a kind of
    Sources

    Larson 1984 199–203

    Givón 1984 133

    What is time deixis?

    Definition

    Time deixis is reference to time relative to a temporal reference point. Typically, this point is the moment of utterance.

    Examples (English)
    • Temporal adverbs

      • now / then
      • yesterday / today / tomorrow
    • Distinctions in tense
    Source:

    Levinson 1983 62

    Generic
    Time deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 54, 62

    Lyons 1977b 682

    What is token-reflexive deixis?

    Definition

    Token-reflexive deixis is discourse deixis in which the deictic expression refers to the expression or speech act in which it occurs.

    Examples (English)
    • This is what phoneticians call "creaky voice."

      [the utterance itself is spoken with creaky voice]

    • I hereby apologize.
    Source:

    Levinson 1983 57, 63

    Generic
    Token-reflexive deixis is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 57, 62–63

    What is tone?

    Definition

    A tone is a pitch element or register added to a syllable to convey grammatical or lexical information.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of tone:

    What is a topic?

    Definition

    A topic is a noun phrase that expresses what a sentence is about, and to which the rest of the sentence is related as a comment .

    Examples (English, Japanese, Tagalog)
    • Initial position in word order, as in the following:

      That new Mazda, I’d like to test-drive it.

    • In Japanese or Tagalog, the marking of a noun phrase
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 239

    Crystal 1980 358

    Levinson 1983 88

    Andrews, A. 1985 77–78, 80

    What is transcription?

    Definition

    Transcription is the process of representing oral text in a written format.

    What is a transitive verb?

    Definition

    A transitive verb is a verb that takes a direct object .

    Generic
    A transitive verb is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 316

    Mish 1991 1254

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 53

    What is transitivity?

    Definition

    Transitivity is the number of objects a verb requires or takes in a given instance.

    Discussion

    Transitivity is sometimes expressed as a grammatical category by means of verb morphology.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of transitivity:
    Generic
    Transitivity is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 316

    Mish 1991 1254

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 53

    What is translational equivalence?

    Definition

    Translational equivalence is the similarity between a word (or expression) in one language and its translation in another. This similarity results from overlapping ranges of reference .

    A translation equivalent is a corresponding word or expression in another language.

    Examples : Alamblak (Papua New Guinea), English

    Here is an example of translational equivalence between Alamblak (Papua New Guinea) and English:

    An English speaker might analyze the Alamblak word y&u0268hop with two meanings:

    y&u0268hop
    1. yesterday
    2. tomorrow

    The two English words are simple translational equivalents.

    However, there is another word in Alamblak that can be analyzed as follows:

    yuanane
    1. day before yesterday
    2. day after tomorrow

    These Alamblak words do not have two senses even though they each have two simple translational equivalents. A single, explanatory analytic definition followed by translational equivalents is the preferable analysis:

    y&u0268hop
    1. one day removed from the present; yesterday, tomorrow
    yuanane
    1. two days removed from the present; day before yesterday, day after tomorrow
    Source

    Bruce, L. 1995 26–27

    What is translative case?

    Definition

    Translative case is a case indicating that the referent of the noun , or the quality of the adjective , that it marks is the result of a process of change.

    Examples (Finnish)
  • The suffix -ksi indicates translative case, as in the following examples:

  • Generic
    Translative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Lyons 1968 299-301

    Gove 1966 813, 2429

    Sebeok 1946 17

    Hakulinen 1961 70

    What is a transverse?

    Definition

    A transverse is an expression of place deixis that indicates movement across the line of sight of the speaker .

    Generic
    A transverse is a kind of
    Source

    Heath 1980 153

    What is a trial number?

    Definition

    A trial number is a number that refers to three members of the designated class.

    Generic
    A trial number is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 220

    Gove 1966 2439

    What is a trope?

    Definition

    A trope is the figurative use of an expression.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of tropes:
    Generic
    A trope is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 461

    Mish 1991 1265

    What is a try-marker?

    Definition

    A try-marker is a device that is used to indicate a test of the addressee 's recognition of a referent . The device is followed by a hesitation pause in expectation of a sign from the addressee as to whether the referent is known to the addressee.

    Example (English)
  • A try-marker may be indicated by rising intonation at the end of an utterance.
  • Generic
    A try-marker is a kind of
    Source

    Moerman 1988 35

    What is a turn?

    Definition

    A turn is a time during which a single participant speaks, within a typical, orderly arrangement in which participants speak with minimal overlap and gap between them.

    Source

    Levinson 1983 295–296

    What is a turn location?

    Definition

    A turn location is the actual place of a turn in a series. It is represented by a number obtained by counting from the initial turn of the series.

    Source

    Levinson 1983 348

    What is a twin-pan balance schema?

    Definition

    A twin-pan balance schema is a balance schema that involves physical or metaphorical countervailing forces acting on either side of a fulcrum.

    Examples (English)
    Physical
    • Scales
    • See-saws
    Metaphorical
    • Argument-as-balance

    • Justice-as-balance

    • Mathematical-equality-as-balance

    Generic
    A twin-pan balance schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 85–86, 89–90