What is dative as a semantic role?

Definition

Dative is the semantic role of a referent that is conscious of being affected by the state or action identified by the verb .

Also known as:

Recipient

Generic
Dative is a kind of
Sources

Fillmore 1968 388–390

Givón 1984 88

What is dative case?

Definition

Dative case is a case that marks any of the following:

  • Indirect objects (for languages in which they are held to exist)
  • Nouns having the role of

    • recipient (as of things given)
    • beneficiary of an action, or
    • possessor of an item
Example (German)
  • The word mir ‘(to) me’ is in dative case, as seen in the following sentence.

  • Gib mir Brot. Give me bread.
  • This word contrasts with ich ‘I’ and mich ‘me’.

  • Generic
    Dative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 102

    Gove 1966 577

    What is a declarative illocutionary point?

    Definition

    A declarative illocutionary point is an illocutionary point in which, by making an utterance , a speaker brings into existence the state of affairs described in the propositional content of the utterance.

    Discussion

    According to certain analyses, a declarative illocutionary point is one of the five basic purposes that a speaker can have in making an utterance.

    Examples (English)
    • Pronouncing a couple married
    • Declaring war
    Generic
    A declarative illocutionary point is a kind of
    Sources

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 39

    Crystal 1985 85

    What is declarative mood?

    Definition

    Declarative mood is an epistemic mood that signals that the proposition expressed by a speaker’s utterance is offered as an unqualified statement of fact.

    Discussion

    The term indicative is used in a narrow sense as a synonym of declarative. In its broad usage, indicative is approximately equivalent in meaning to realis .

    Generic
    Declarative mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Palmer 1986 26–27

    Sadock and Zwicky 1985 165–166

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 144

    Crystal 1980 85

    Palmer 1986 70, 83

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 99

    Crystal 1980 183

    Mish 1991 613

    What is deductive mood?

    Definition

    Deductive mood is an epistemic mood that signals that the speaker judges from other facts that the proposition expressed by his utterance is probably true.

    Example (English)
  • There’s no answer; he must already have left.
  • Generic
    Deductive mood is a kind of
    Source

    Palmer 1986 59–60

    What is a defective illocutionary act?

    Definition

    A defective illocutionary act is an illocutionary act, whether successful or unsuccessful, in which one or more of the preparatory or sincerity conditions for the act are not met.

    Examples (English)
    • The utterance Pass the salt in a situation in which a preparatory condition, the addressee’s ability to comply, is not met because there is no salt on the table
    • A lie or insincere promise, in which the act itself is defective even if the statement or promise is successfully made
    Generic
    A defective illocutionary act is a kind of
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 22–23

    What is a defective verb?

    Definition

    A defective verb is a verb which does not exhibit all the forms typical of a regular verbal conjugation.

    Example (English)
  • The auxiliary verb ought is a defective verb.
  • Generic
    A defective verb is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 59

    Mish 1991 333

    What is a definite concessive relation?

    Definition

    A definite concessive relation is a concession relation in which the clause expressing the concession is marked by a concessive subordinator that expresses the meaning “in spite of the fact that.”

    Generic
    A definite concessive relation is a kind of
    Source

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 198

    What is definite identifiability?

    Definition

    Definite identifiability is a kind of definiteness which indicates that an expression’s referent(s) is in some way identifiable to both speaker and addressee .

    The referent is identifiable because of a shared knowledge or situation, including a previous mention of the referent.

    Examples (English)
    • the
    • he
    Generic
    Definite is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 53

    Anderson, S. 1985 179

    Lyons 1968 276

    Mish 1991 334

    Hawkins, J. 1978 202

    What is definiteness?

    Definition

    Definiteness is a category concerned with the grammaticalization of identifiability and nonidentifiability of referents on the part of a speaker or addressee .

    Discussion

    Definiteness is frequently expressed by

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of definiteness:
    Generic
    Definiteness is a kind of

    What is a definition?

    Definition

    A definition is a thorough description of the meaning of a lexical unit .

    Parts

    Here are the parts of a definition:

    Examples (Hebrew-English): Bilingual definition
  • Lexical unit

    Analytic definition

    Supplemental info

    Translational equivalents

    hikkih

    To physically impact someone or something with an instrument

    Such as a sword, spear, or hand

    To hit, strike, stab, cut, or slash

    shamam

    To have never given birth to a child

    With the implication of being empty and emotionally ruined

    To be barren or infertile

  • Examples: (English: monolingual definition)
  • Lexical unit

    Analytic definition

    Supplemental info

    clap

    To strike the palms of the hands together

    As in applauding

    dog

    A domesticated canine

    Raised in many breeds, commonly kept as a house pet.

  • Nonexamples

    A gloss is not the same as a definition.

    Here is a table that compares a gloss with a definition:

    Point of comparison

    Gloss

    Definition

    Length

    Consists of one or two words

    Consists of one or more phrases, sentences, or paragraphs

    Specificity

    Is a summary of the meaning of the sense, suitable for use with text glossing

    Is a full, expanded description of the meaning of the sense

    What is a deictic center?

    Definition

    A deictic center is a reference point in relation to which a deictic expression is to be interpreted.

    Discussion

    The deictic center is most typically the present time, location, participant role , and so forth of the speaker .

    Examples (English)
  • In the following example, the speaker, the actual location and the actual time of the utterance are, respectively, the deictic centers for the interpretation of I, here, and now:

  • I’m over here now.
  • Sources

    Fillmore 1975 83–85

    Denny 1978 73

    What is a deictic expression?

    Definition

    A deictic expression is an expression that has a deictic usage as its basic usage, though it may also have nondeictic usages.

    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 60

    Levinson 1983 64

    What is deixis?

    Definition

    Deixis is reference by means of an expression whose interpretation is relative to the (usually) extralinguistic context of the utterance , such as

    • who is speaking
    • the time or place of speaking
    • the gestures of the speaker , or
    • the current location in the discourse .
    Examples (English)

    Here are examples of deictic expressions:

    • I
    • You
    • Now
    • There
    • That
    • The following
    • Tenses
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of deixis:
    Generic
    Deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 103

    Levinson 1983 54–56

    Mish 1991 335

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1025

    What is delative case?

    Definition

    Delative case is a case which expresses motion downward from the referent of the noun it marks.

    Generic
    Delative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 53

    Gove 1966 595

    What is a delay?

    Definition

    A delay is an item used to put off a dispreferred second part .

    Examples (English)
  • The following exchange contains delays as a repair initiation in the second turn , insertion sequences in the fourth and fifth turns, and the well, pause, and self-repair in the sixth turn:

  • A: Can you do it?
  • B: What?
  • A: Can you take care of it?
  • B: Now?
  • A: If that’s all right.
  • B: Well, [pause] I mean, no, I’m afraid not.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of delays:
    • pause
    • repair initiator
    Source

    Levinson 1983 334–335

    What is deliberative mood?

    Definition

    Deliberative mood is a directive mood which signals the speaker's request for instruction from the addressee as to whether to do the proposition expressed in the utterance.

    Example (English)
  • Shall I water the grass?
  • Example (Afar)

    The -oo suffix signals deliberative mood, as in aboo ‘Shall I do (it)?’

    Adapted from:

    Bliese 1981 146

    Generic
    Deliberative mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Palmer 1986 107–108

    Bliese 1981 146

    What is a demonstrative?

    Definition

    A demonstrative is a determiner that is used deictically to indicate a referent 's spatial, temporal, or discourse location.

    A demonstrative functions as

    Examples (English)
    • These
    • Those
    • This
    • That
    Generic
    A demonstrative is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 61

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 372

    Mish 1991 338

    What is deontic modality?

    Definition

    Deontic modality is modality that connotes the speaker's

    • degree of requirement of
    • desire for, or
    • commitment to the realization of

    the proposition expressed by the utterance .

    Examples (English)
    • You may go at four o’clock.
    • All elections shall take place on schedule.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of deontic modality:
    Generic
    Deontic modality is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 88

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 246–247

    Palmer 1986 10–11, 15, 96–97, 115

    What is the dependent of a phrase?

    Definition

    The dependent of a phrase is any element in a phrase that does not refer to the same entity that the whole phrase refers to.

    Example (English)

    ‘John’ in ‘John's book’

    See also

    What is derivation?

    Definition

    Derivation is the formation of a new word or inflectable stem from another word or stem . It typically occurs by the addition of an affix .

    The derived word is often of a different word class from the original. It may thus take the inflectional affixes of the new word class.

    Discussion

    In contrast to inflection , derivation

    • is not obligatory
    • typically produces a greater change of meaning from the original form, and
    • is more likely to result in a form which has a somewhat idiosyncratic meaning.
    • often changes the grammatical category of a root
    Examples (English)
    • Kindness is derived from kind.
    • Joyful is derived from joy.
    • Amazement is derived from amaze.
    • Speaker is derived from speak.
    • National is derived from nation.
    Characteristics

    Derivational operations

    • tend to be idiosyncratic and non-productive
    • do not occur in well-defined 'paradigms,' and
    • are 'optional' insofar as they

      • shape the basic semantic content of roots and
      • are not governed by some other syntactic operation or element.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of derivation:

    Here are some kinds of derivational operations:

    • Operations that change the grammatical category of a root

      Example: Nominalization (English)

      Verbs and adjectives can be turned into nouns: amaze > amazement, speak > speaker, perform > performance, soft > softness, warm > warmth

    • Operations that change the valence (transitivity) of a root, and

      Example: Causation (Swahili)

      kula 'to eat' > kulisha, 'to feed'

    Generic
    Derivation is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 89

    Mish 1991 342

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 62

    Bybee 1985 81–82, 99

    Payne, T. 1997a 25–26

    What is a derivational affix?

    Definition

    A derivational affix is an affix by means of which one word is formed ( derived ) from another. The derived word is often of a different word class from the original.

    Discussion

    In contrast to an inflectional affix , a derivational affix

    • is not part of an obligatory set of affixes
    • generally occurs closer to the root
    • generally is more meaningful, and
    • is more likely to result in a form that has a somewhat idiosyncratic meaning.
    Examples (English)
    • Joy ful
    • Joyful ness
    • Stapl er
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of derivational affixes:
    Generic
    A derivational affix is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 62

    Crystal 1985 89

    Mish 1991 342

    Bybee 1985 81–82, 99

    What is a derivative?

    Introduction

    In the lexical database, a derivative is usually entered as a subentry . Only irregular, semantic derivatives are entered as separate major entries .

    Definition

    A derivative is a stem that is formed by combining a root with an affix that adds a component of meaning that is more than just inflectional .

    The meaning of a derivative is determined by its context, not its parts.

    Also known as:

    derived form, derived stem

    Discussion

    A derivative is a stem formed by derivation , a morphosyntactic operation .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of derivatives:
    • Grammatical derivatives

      Example:
      • Nominalized stems, such as encouragement from encourage
      • Adverbialized stems, such as courageously from courageous
    • Semantic derivatives

      Example:

      nominalized stems, such as generation from generate

    See also
    • Filling out a subentry

    What is a description relation?

    Definition

    A description relation is an elaboration relation in which a proposition(s) provides the “contents” of an act of perception or cognition expressed by another proposition.

    Example (English)
  • He looked outside. It was snowing.

    Source:

    Dijk 1981 272

  • Generic
    A description relation is a kind of
    Source

    Dijk 1981 272–273

    What is a descriptive text?

    Definition

    A descriptive text is a text which lists the characteristics of something.

    Features
    • The topic is usually about the attributes of a thing.
    • Third person pronoun forms are used.
    Examples (English)
    • Requirements for employment
    • The appearance of a person
    • The details of a location
    Sources

    Larson 1984 366

    Longacre 1983 10

    What is a determiner?

    Definition

    A determiner is a word or affix that belongs to a class of noun modifiers that expresses the reference, including quantity, of a noun .

    Example (English)

    all these houses

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of determiners:
    Generic
    A determiner is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 108

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 64

    Lyons 1977b 454–455

    Mish 1991 346

    What is a development lexical relation?

    Introduction

    Understanding the development lexical relation is important for using words which refer to the

    • natural stages of growth and change in living things, and
    • evolvement or expansion of nonliving things of which humans are the agents.
    Definition

    A development lexical relation is an association between lexical units which refers to stages or steps in a process involving change such as

    • expansion, and
    • growth.
    Examples (English)
    • Growth

      • {newborn, infant, toddler, child, adolescent, adult}
      • {seed, bud, flower}
    • Process

      • {ember, spark, flame, blazing fire}
      • {planning, design, implementation, production, evaluation}
    Underlying structure

    A development set has the structure of a scale.

    See:

    What is a lexical relation with a scale structure for other examples of similar lexical relations in English.

    What is a dialogue discourse?

    Definition

    Dialogue discourse is a compound discourse that contains both narrative discourse and repartee discourse .

    Generic
    A dialogue discourse is a kind of
    Source

    Larson 1984 381

    What is a different subject marker?

    Definition

    A different subject marker is a marker in the verb morphology of a clause which indicates that the subject of the clause is not the same as the subject of some other clause. The other clause is maybe

    Generic
    A different subject marker is a kind of
    Sources

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 187, 201

    Longacre 1985 264

    What is a diphthong?

    Definition

    A diphthong is a phonetic sequence, consisting of a vowel and a glide, that is interpreted as a single vowel.

    What is a direct illocution?

    Definition

    A direct illocution is an illocutionary act in which only the illocutionary force and propositional content literally expressed by the lexical items and syntactic form of the utterance are communicated.

    Generic
    A direct illocution is a kind of
    Sources

    Leech 1983 37–38

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 25

    Searle 1979 30–32

    Levinson 1983 274

    What is a direct object?

    Definition

    A direct object is a grammatical relation that exhibits a combination of certain independent syntactic properties, such as the following:

    • The usual grammatical characteristics of the patient of typically transitive verbs
    • A particular case marking
    • A particular clause position
    • The conditioning of an agreement affix on the verb
    • The capability of becoming the clause subject in passivization
    • The capability of reflexivization

    The identification of the direct object relation may be further confirmed by finding significant overlap with similar direct object relations previously established in other languages. This may be done by analyzing correspondence between translation equivalents .

    Discussion

    The direct object relation should be identified on a language-specific basis.

    Generic
    A direct object is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 94

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 155

    Mish 1991 358

    Comrie 1989 66

    Andrews, A. 1985 68, 120, 126

    Comrie 1985a 337

    What is direct speech?

    Definition

    Direct speech is quoted speech that is presented without modification, as it might have been uttered by the original speaker .

    Example (English)
  • “Patrick Henry said, ‘Give me liberty or give me death’.”
  • Generic
    Direct speech is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 95

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1021

    What is a directive illocutionary point?

    Definition

    A directive illocutionary point is an illocutionary point in which the speaker attempts to get someone to bring about the state of affairs described by the propositional content of the utterance .

    Discussion

    According to certain analyses, a directive illocutionary point is one of the five basic purposes that a speaker can have in making an utterance.

    Generic
    A directive illocutionary point is a kind of
    Sources

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 39

    Crystal 1985 95

    What is directive modality?

    Definition

    Directive modality is a deontic modality that connotes the speaker’s degree of requirement of conformity to the proposition expressed by an utterance .

    Discussion

    If the usage of the term directive modality is extended beyond discussion of solely grammaticalized means of expression, it becomes nearly synonymous with directive illocutionary point .

    Examples (English)
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of directive modality:
    Generic
    Directive modality is a kind of
    Sources

    Palmer 1986 97–-98

    Crystal 1980 95

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 78

    What are discontinuous constituents?

    Definition

    Discontinuous constituents are constituents which are

    • separated from each other by one or more intervening constituent, and
    • considered either

      • syntactically contiguous and unitary, or
      • realizing the same, single meaning.
    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of discontinuous constituents in English:

    • Certain phrasal verbs, such as “switch the light on”
    • Word segments separated by expletive insertions, such as “abso -bloomin- lutely”
    • Inflectional agreement markers
    Example (French)

    The French negative ne … pas are discontinuous constituents:

    Je ne sais pas. ‘I don’t know.’

    Generic
    Discontinuous constituents are a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 :114

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 :68–69

    McCarthy 1982 :575

    What is a discontinuous morpheme?

    Definition

    A discontinuous morpheme is a morpheme that is interrupted by the insertion of another morphological unit.

    Examples (Philippines)
    • A root containing an infix from Tagalog (Philippines):

      bili : root ‘buy’

      -um- : infix ‘AGT’

      bumili : word ‘bought’

    • A circumfix surrounding a root from Tuwali Ifugao (Philippines):

      baddang : root ‘help’ v.

      ka--an : circumfix ‘NOMR’

      kabaddangan : word ‘helpfulness’

    What is a discourse?

    Definition

    A discourse is an instance of language use whose type can be classified on the basis of such factors as grammatical and lexical choices and their distribution in

    • main versus supportive materials
    • theme
    • style, and
    • the framework of knowledge and expectations within which the addressee interprets the discourse.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of discourse:
    Generic
    A discourse is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 96

    Elson and Pickett 1988 163

    Longacre 1990 1–2

    Hanks 1987 670

    What is discourse deixis?

    Definition

    Discourse deixis is deictic reference to a portion of a discourse relative to the speaker 's current “location” in the discourse.

    Examples (English)
    • Use of this to refer to a story one is about to tell in:

    • I bet you haven’t heard this story.
    • Reference to Chapter 7 of a book by means of in the next chapter or in the previous chapter, depending on whether the reference is made from Chapter 6 or 8.

    • Use of this in a creaky-voiced utterance of:

    • This is what phoneticians call a creaky voice.
    Source:

    Levinson 1983 63, 85

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of discourse deixis:
    Generic
    Discourse deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 62–63, 85, 89

    Lyons 1977b 667–668

    What is a discourse schema?

    Definition

    A discourse schema (plural: schemata ) is a sequenced group of text elements that is categorized by the text's genre.

    Examples

    A narative schema consists of the following elements:

    • Exposition or setting
    • Inciting moment
    • Developing conflict
    • Climax
    • Denouement
    • Final suspense
    • Conclusion
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of discourse schemata:
    Source

    Longacre 1996 :34–35

    What is a dismissive relation?

    Definition

    A dismissive relation is an interpropositional relation which communicates the irrelevancy of some proposition(s) to some other(s) without communicating contraexpectation.

    Discussion

    A dismissive relation is sometimes similar to an indefinite concessive relation .

    Examples (English)
    • We may be back tonight; I'm not sure; either way, just make yourselves at home.
    • Expressions such as anyhow or at any rate, either in a context similar to the first example or when functioning as subject-changers.
    Generic
    A dismissive relation is a kind of
    Source

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 254–255

    What is a dispreferred second part?

    Definition

    A dispreferred second part is a second part of an adjacency pair that

    • consists of a response to the first part that is generally to be avoided, and
    • is likely to be marked by such features as

    Examples (English)
    • A refusal in response to a request, offer, or invitation
    • A disagreement in response to an assessment
    • An unexpected answer in response to a question
    • An admission in response to blame
    Generic
    A dispreferred second part is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 333–336

    What is a distal?

    Definition

    A distal is a distinction in place deixis that indicates location far from the speaker or other deictic center .

    Generic
    A distal is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 62

    What is distributive aspect?

    Definition

    Distributive aspect is an iterative aspect which expresses that an event is applied to members of a group one after another. These members are typically the referents named by

    Example (Russian)

    Russian po- in On po-zapiral dveri. `He locked the doors one at a time.'

    Source:

    Comrie 1985a 344

    Generic
    Distributive aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 59

    Comrie 1985a 344

    What is a distributive numeral?

    Definition

    A distributive numeral is a numeral which expresses a group of the number specified.

    Examples (English)
    • By the dozen
    • In pairs
    Generic
    A distributive numeral is a kind of
    Source

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 59

    What is ditransitivity?

    Definition

    Ditransitivity is a term which describes a verb or clause which takes two objects .

    Also known as:

    bitransitivity

    Example (English)
  • In the following sentence, tell is a ditransitive verb:

  • She told him a story.
  • Generic
    Ditransitivity is a kind of
    Source

    Crystal 1985 316

    What is a diversion schema?

    Definition

    A diversion schema is a force schema that involves forces that physically or metaphorically meet and produce a change of direction.

    Example (English)
  • Being pushed off course by wind or current while rowing.
  • Generic
    A diversion schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 46

    What is a double stop?

    Definition

    A double stop consists of simultaneous labial and velar articulation.

    Examples

    There are voiceless, voiced, and prenasalized double stops:

    • Voiceless: /kp/
    • Voiced: /gb/
    • Prenasalized: /Nmgb/ and /Nmkp/

    These occur routinely in African languages.

    What is a downgrade?

    Definition

    A downgrade is a move that weakens or mitigates a previous utterance in order to make it more acceptable.

    Examples (English)
    • Adding an offer of assistance to a request in order to make it more acceptable
    • Suggesting ways a request could be easily accomplished in order to make it more acceptable
    Generic
    A downgrade is a kind of
    Source

    Moerman 1988 164–165, 177

    What is dual number?

    Definition

    Dual number is number which refers to two members of the class identified by the noun .

    Generic
    Dual number is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 245

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 73

    Mish 1991 386

    What is dubitative mood?

    Definition

    Dubitative mood is an epistemic mood which signals a speaker’s reservation about the accuracy of his or her statement.

    Example (Ojibwa)
  • The Ojibwa suffix -tik expresses dubitative mood, as in the following construction:

  • kenapac uwaya pieya:tik ‘someone seems to be coming here’

  • (Leonard Bloomfield, cited by Bybee 1985 179 )
  • Generic
    Dubitative mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Nida 1949 169

    Bybee 1985 179

    What is a dummy word?

    Definition

    A dummy word is a grammatical unit that has no meaning, but completes a sentence to make it grammatical.

    Examples (English)
    • It is raining.
    • Does he know?
    Generic
    A dummy word is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 102–103

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 81

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 70

    Mish 1991 437