What is a main clause?

Definition

A main clause is a clause that

Generic
A main clause is a kind of
Sources

Crystal 1980 217

Hartmann and Stork 1972 136

Mish 1991 718

Pei and Gaynor 1954 176

What is a major entry in a lexical database?

Definition

A major entry is a unit in a lexical database representing a lexeme with its phonological, semantic, grammatical, and anthropological information (where lexically relevant and available).

Insert the following types of lexemes as major entries:

  • Morphemes
  • Letters of the alphabet
  • Loan words or phrases
  • Proper names
Parts
Examples

Click the following jumps to see examples of major entries in the lexical database:

  • Data Entry view
  • Major entry in Publication view

What is manner as a semantic role?

Definition

Manner is a semantic role that notes how the action, experience, or process of an event is carried out.

Example (English)
  • The girl walked to school slowly.
  • Generic
    Manner is a kind of
    Sources

    Larson 1984 203

    Givón 1984 126

    What is a manner implicature?

    Definition

    A manner implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressee 's assumption that the speaker is either observing or flouting the conversational maxim of manner .

    If the speaker is assumed to be observing the maxim, then the addressee makes a standard implicature . If the speaker is assumed to be flouting the maxim, then the addressee makes a more nonstandard type of implicature.

    Examples (English)
    • The manner implicature Miss Singer sang badly is derivable from the sentence Miss Singer produced a series of sounds corresponding closely to the score of an aria from ‘"Rigoletto."

    • Because of the submaxim be orderly, an addressee can draw the implicature that the events presented in Alfred went to the store and bought some whisky happened in order.

    Source:

    Levinson 1983 108, 112

    Generic
    A manner implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Grice 1975 46

    Levinson 1983 107–108, 112

    What is manner of articulation?

    Definition

    Manner of articulation is the type of closure made by the articulators and the degree of the obstruction of the airstream by those articulators.

    What is a manner of discourse?

    Definition

    A manner of discourse is an identifiable style of speech that is suitable for a particular type of

    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples that illustrate distinctions in manners of discourse. The intended perlocutionary effect is the same, but the styles are different:

    • Participants should remain seated throughout the ceremony.
    • Don’t get up.
    • Sit tight .
    Source:

    ( Joos 1962 , cited by Hartmann and Stork 1972 136 )

    Sources

    Crystal 1980 219

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 136

    Levinson 1979 207

    Levinson 1983 91

    Joos 1962

    What is a marker?

    Definition

    A marker is a lexical item that signals a morphosyntactic operation .

    Examples (English)
    • The suffix -s added to a noun signals plurality, as in the following example:

      three hats

    • The suffix -s added to a verb signals third person, singular, present tense, as in the following example:

      he sees

    Source

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 132

    What is a marking clause?

    Definition

    A marking clause is a clause, in a language with the grammatical category of switch reference , that contains an indication as to whether or not one of its arguments is coreferential with an argument of a reference clause .

    The indication is often provided by a verbal affix . The argument is typically the subject .

    Generic
    A marking clause is a kind of
    Source

    Haiman and Munro 1983 ix–xiii

    What is masculine gender?

    Definition

    Masculine gender is a grammatical gender that

    • marks nouns having human or animal male referents , and
    • often marks nouns having referents that do not have distinctions of sex.
    Examples (Spanish)
    • el hombre ‘the man’
    • el gallino ‘the rooster’
    • el libro ‘the book’
    Generic
    Masculine gender is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 93

    Mish 1991 730

    What is a mass noun?

    Definition

    A mass noun is a noun whose referents are not thought of as separate entities.

    It may have distinguishing features such as the following:

    • The inability to take a plural form
    • Cooccurrence with some determiners (such as some and much ), but not others (such as the English many )
    Discussion

    Some nouns may permit treatment as either count or mass nouns.

    Example:

    In English, salad may be treated as either a count or mass noun, as evidenced by the acceptability of the following expressions:

    • many salads
    • much salad
    Examples (English)
  • The word furniture is a mass noun. It cannot take the plural suffix -s:

  • * furnitures
  • In addition, it can occur with some determiners, but not others:

  • the furniture
  • much furniture
  • some furniture
  • * a furniture
  • * many furnitures
  • Source:

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 246

  • Generic
    A mass noun is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 137

    Crystal 1985 189

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 246

    Mish 1991 731

    What is a matrix?

    Definition

    A matrix is an arrangement of items into labeled rows and columns within a table.

    It shows the relationship between two categories of features that are relevant to the items in the matrix. The row headings represent features belonging to one category. The column headings represent features belonging to another category.

    Each column or row contains items having the feature described in the heading. Each cell in the matrix represents an item characterized by the features in the corresponding column and row.

    Example (Tuwali Ifugao, Philippines)

    Here is an example of a matrix showing the relationship of roots and affixes in Tuwali Ifugao (Philippines):

  • Affix

    Root

    -um-

    -imm-

    i-

    in-

    e

    um-e

    imm-e

    i-e

    in-e

    ali

    um-ali

    imm-ali

    i-ali

    in-ali

  • What is a matrix sentence?

    Definition

    A matrix sentence is a sentence in which a clause has been embedded as a constituent .

    The clause may or may not be an immediate constituent , but it must be embedded by means other than coordination .

    Example (English)
  • In the following sentences, the dog died is the matrix sentence:

    • After eating the raw fish, the dog died.
    • The dog that ate the raw fish died.
  • Generic
    A matrix sentence is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 222

    Lyons 1968 266

    What is meaning?

    Definition

    Meaning is a notion in semantics classically defined as having two components:

    • Reference, anything in the referential realm denoted by a word or expression, and
    • Sense, the system of paradigmatic and syntagmatic relationships between a lexical unit and other lexical units in a language.
    Source

    Lyons 1977b 174, 175, 206

    What is meaning and pragmatic function?

    Definition

    Meaning and pragmatic function is a general heading under which terminology relating to the various areas of study of language use and interpretation is collected. These areas are variously categorized as either semantic or pragmatic.

    Discussion

    This inclusive grouping of meaning and pragmatic function is made because of the difficulty that theorists have in making in practice a sharp distinction between semantics and pragmatics. The topics that have been investigated and are presented under this topic are weighted heavily toward the pragmatic.

    An expanded edition of the glossary projected for the future will likely include much additional terminology relating to the various areas of concern in semantics, especially case frames (that is, types of predications or propositions) and more semantic roles.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of meaning and pragmatic function:

    What is a means-purpose relation?

    Definition

    A means-purpose relation is a causal relation in which

    • one proposition expresses a state or activity employed so as to bring about the state or event expressed by the other proposition, and
    • the achievement or nonachievement of the desired state or event is not expressed.
    Example (English)
  • He was quiet in order not to disturb the boss.
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of means-purpose relation:
    Generic
    A means-purpose relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Beekman and Callow 1974 302–303

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 102

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 63–65

    What is a means-result relation?

    Definition

    A means-result relation is a causal relation in which

    • one proposition expresses a state or activity employed so as to bring about the state or event expressed by the other proposition, and
    • the achievement or nonachievement of the desired state or event is expressed.
    Example (English)
  • He kept from disturbing the boss by being quiet.
  • Generic
    A means-result relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Beekman and Callow 1974 301–302

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 102

    What is measure as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Measure is a semantic role which notes the quantification of an event.

    Example (English)
  • The new coat costs $70.
  • Generic
    A measure is a kind of
    Sources

    Larson 1984 199–203

    Longacre 1983 159

    What is a medial clause?

    Definition

    A medial clause is any clause in a clause chain which

    Also known as:

    nonfinal clause

    Generic
    A medial clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1985 264

    Longacre 1983 299

    What is mediopassive voice?

    Definition

    Mediopassive voice is a passive voice in which the

    Example (Chichewa Bantu)
  • In the following example, mediopassive voice is indicated by the suffix -ka:

    mwana wangu wapandi-ka
    child my beat -MEDIOPASSIVE
    ‘My child has been beaten.’
  • Generic
    Mediopassive voice is a kind of
    Source

    Foley, W. and Van Valin 1985 322–323

    What is meiosis?

    Definition

    Meiosis is the minimization of the importance of a referent by the use of an expression that is disproportionate to it.

    Example (English)
  • Referring to a generous gift as a small token of esteem
  • Generic
    Meiosis is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 488

    Gove 1966 1405

    What is a metaphor?

    Definition

    Here are two senses of metaphor:

    1. A metaphor is the expression of an understanding of one concept in terms of another concept, where there is some similarity or correlation between the two.
    2. A metaphor is the understanding itself of one concept in terms of another.
    Examples (English)
  • The following sentences illustrate how the metaphorical understanding of anger-as-fire is expressed:

    • Your insincere apology just added fuel to the fire.
    • After the argument, Dave was smoldering for days.
    • That kindled my ire.
    • Boy, am I burned up !

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. 1987 388

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of metaphors:
    Generic
    A metaphor is a kind of
    Sources

    Johnson 1981b 4, 18–27, 43

    Beekman and Callow 1974 124

    Mish 1991 746

    Lakoff, G. 1987 388–389

    What is metaphorical entailment?

    Definition

    A metaphorical entailment is the imparting of a characteristic of the source domain (the metaphorical image) to the target domain (the concept receiving metaphorical treatment) by logical means.

    Examples (English)
  • The metaphorical entailment “an argument defines a path” is derived from the premise that “a journey defines a path” and the argument-as-journey metaphor, whereby “an argument is a journey,” and which is expressed in the following sentences:

    • He strayed from the line of argument.
    • Do you follow my argument?
    • I'm lost.
    • You're going around in circles.

      Source:

      Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 90

  • Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 89–91

    What is metonymy?

    Definition

    Here are two senses for metonymy:

    1. Metonymy is, broadly defined, a trope in which one entity is used to stand for another associated entity.
    2. Metonymy is, more specifically, a replacive relationship that is the basis for a number of conventional metonymic expressions occurring in ordinary language.
    Examples (English)
    • The pen is mightier than the sword.

      Pen and sword represent publishing and military force, respectively.

    • The following examples illustrate the

      controller-for-controlled metonymy

      :

      • Nixon bombed Hanoi.

        Nixon stands for the armed forces that Nixon controlled.

      • A Mercedes rear-ended me.

        The word me stands for the car that the speaker was driving.

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 38

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of metonymies:
    Generic
    Metonymy is a kind of
    Sources

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 35–36, 38

    Mish 1991 748

    Beekman and Callow 1974 116

    What is metrical phonology?

    Definition

    Metrical phonology is a phonological theory concerned with organizing segments into groups of relative prominence. Segments are organized into syllables , syllables into metrical feet, feet into phonological words, and words into larger units.

    This organization is represented formally by metrical trees and grids.

    Example (metrical tree)

    Here is an example of a metrical tree of the word metricality:

    On the word and foot level, s and w indicate relative stress. The w indicates weaker prominence, and the s indicates relative stronger prominence.

    The internal syllable structure in the above figure has been omitted and is represented by triangles. Within the syllable, s and w refer to stronger and weaker degrees of sonorance, not stress, and s corresponds to the syllable nucleus, which is the most sonorant segment in a syllable.

    In metrical trees, the strongest unit of the word is the one that is dominated by s all the way up the tree.

    Example (metrical grid)

    Here is an example of a metrical grid of the word metricality:

    Stress within feet and words can be represented as a metrical grid:

    In a grid, the most prominent unit is the one that is dominated by the most number of x ’s.

    What is middle voice?

    Definition

    Middle voice is a voice that indicates that the subject is the actor and acts

    • upon himself or herself reflexively , or
    • for his or her own benefit.

    In the case of plural subjects, the actors may, perhaps, act upon each other.

    Example (Greek)

    Here is an example of middle voice [diacritical markings are omitted here]:

  • The Greek verb louomai means ‘I wash myself.’

    Source:

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 252

  • Generic
    Middle voice is a kind of
    Sources

    Elson and Pickett 1988 31

    Bybee 1985 20–21

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 137

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 252

    Nida 1949 168

    Mish 1991 752

    What is a minimal pair?

    Definition

    A minimal pair is two words that differ in only one sound.

    Examples (English)

    Sounds which differ: /p/ and /b/

    • [lQp] ‘lap’
    • [lQb] ‘lab’
    Examples (Cashinahua, Peru/Brazil)

    Sounds which differ: /t/ and /d/

    • [taka] 'liver'
    • [daka] 'to rest'
    Source:

    Kensinger 1963 , cited in Burquest and Payne 1993 30

    See also

    What is a minor entry in a lexical database?

    Definition

    A minor entry is a unit in the lexical database representing a lexeme that is an irregular variant of a major entry lexeme. It contains minimal phonological, semantic, and grammatical information about the variant.

    Insert the following types of lexemes as minor entries:

    • Irregularly inflected forms
    • Irregular phonological variants
    Examples

    Click the following jumps to see examples of minor entries in the English lexical database:

    • Data Entry view
    • Publication view

    What is a misplacement marker?

    Definition

    A misplacement marker is a device used in a turn of conversation to indicate that the turn is in some way out of place.

    Example (English)
  • In the last turn of the following exchange, by the way indicates that the turn is somewhat out of place:

  • H: So, maybe we can have lunch together tomorrow?
  • X: Okay, yeah, it’s, yes it’s fine, yes.
  • H: I’ll give you a call, I’ll give you a call tomorrow then, all right?
  • X: Um, hang on, one thing, I’m lecturing, um, that’s okay. I’m lecturing, I finish at 12:15.
  • H: Okay, 12:15. We’ll go to Shatin or someplace.
  • X: Yeah, yeah, sounds good.
  • H: Okay then.
  • X: Okay.
  • H: How do you feel, by the way?

  • Generic
    A misplacement marker is a kind of
    Source

    Tsui 1989 558–559

    What are mixed metaphors?

    Definition

    Mixed metaphors are different metaphors occurring in the same utterance , especially the same sentence, that are used to express the same concept.

    Mixed metaphors often, but not always, result in a conflict of concepts.

    Examples (English)
  • The following sentences illustrate a mixture of the argument-as-journey and argument-as-container metaphors. The first three sentences are acceptable; the last two are marginally acceptable.

  • At this point our argument doesn’t have much content.
  • In what we’ve done so far, we have provided the core of our argument.
  • If we keep going the way we’re going, we’ll fit all the facts in.
  • ??We can now follow the path of the core of the argument.
  • ??The content of the argument proceeds as follows …

  • Source:

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 92, 95

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of mixed metaphors:
    Generic
    Mixed metaphors are a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 92, 95

    What is a mode of achievement?

    Definition

    A mode of achievement is the means employed by a speaker to accomplish the illocutionary point of an utterance .

    Examples (English)
    Sources

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 15–16, 40

    Searle 1979 5–6

    What is a moderate epistemic qualification?

    Definition

    A moderate epistemic qualification is an epistemic qualification that signals a middle degree of certainty.

    Examples (English)
    • It is probable that ...
    • I believe ...
    Source:

    Caton 1981 87

    Generic
    A moderate epistemic qualification is a kind of
    Source

    Caton 1981 87

    What is modification?

    Definition

    Modification is a morphological process which produces an alteration within a root or stem .

    Example (English)
  • The root man is modified when it it undergoes the pluralization that results in the form men.

    Source:

    Matthews 1991 136

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of modifications:
    Generic
    A modification is a kind of
    Sources

    Matthews 1991 136

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 196

    Crystal 1985 263

    What is a modifier?

    Definition

    A modifier is a constituent , in an endocentric construction , that imparts information relating to the head of the construction.

    Examples (English)
  • In the endocentric construction the very hot soup, the constituents the and very hot are modifiers of soup, the head of the construction.
  • Generic
    A modifier is a kind of
    Sources

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 181–182

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 143

    Crystal 1985 196–197

    What is mood and modality?

    Definition

    Mood is one of a set of distinctive forms that are used to signal modality.

    Modality is a facet of illocutionary force , signaled by grammatical devices (that is, moods), that expresses

    • the illocutionary point or general intent of a speaker, or
    • a speaker’s degree of commitment to the expressed proposition 's believability, obligatoriness, desirability, or reality.
    Discussion

    The term mood is used by some authors in the same sense modality is.

    Others distinguish the two, as we do here, by using mood to refer to the contrastive grammatical expressions of different modalities and reserving modality to refer to the meanings so expressed.

    If, in addition, modality is used to refer to meanings expressed by lexical means as well as grammatical, it is effectively a synonym of illocutionary force.

    Example (English)

    Here are some examples of mood and modality; items that signal certain modalities:

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of mood and modality:
    Generic
    Mood and modality is a kind of
    Sources

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 241

    Givón 1984 272

    Palmer 1986 14–15, 26

    Bybee 1985 169

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 219

    Crystal 1985 198

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 142, 144

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 183

    Mish 1991 762, 770

    What is a morph?

    Definition

    A morph is the phonetic realization of a morpheme .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of morphs:
    See also
    • Comparison of morpheme-morph-allomorph and phoneme-phone-allophone

    Source

    Crystal 1985 199

    What is a morpheme?

    Definition

    A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language.

    Discussion

    Current approaches to morphology conceive of morphemes as rules involving the linguistic context, rather than as isolated pieces of linguistic matter. They acknowledge that

    • meaning may be directly linked to suprasegmental phonological units, such as tone or stress.
    • the meaning of a morpheme with a given form may vary, depending on its immediate environment.
    Source:

    Payne, T. 1997a 20–21

    Examples (English)
    • Unladylike

    • The word unladylike consists of three morphemes and four syllables.
    • Morpheme breaks:

    • un- 'not'
    • lady '(well behaved) female adult human'
    • -like 'having the characteristics of'
    • None of these morphemes can be broken up any more without losing all sense of meaning. Lady cannot be broken up into "la" and "dy," even though "la" and "dy" are separate syllables. Note that each syllable has no meaning on its own.
    • Dogs

    • The word dogs consists of two morphemes and one syllable:

    • dog, and
    • -s, a plural marker on nouns
    • Note that a morpheme like "-s" can just be a single phoneme and does not have to be a whole syllable.
    • Technique

    • The word technique consists of only one morpheme having two syllables.
    • Even though the word has two syllables, it is a single morpheme because it cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful parts.
    Classification

    Morphemes may be classified, on the basis of word formation, characteristics into the following types:

    Morpheme type

    Structure

    Bound

    Free

    simple, made up of a single morpheme; a basis for compounding and affixation

  • yes/no
  • yes/no
  • may be complex, made up of one or more morphemes; a basis for affixation

  • yes/no
  • yes/no
    • affix

      • prefix
      • infix
      • suffix
      • suprafix
      • simulfix
      • circumfix

    simple

  • yes
  • no
  • simple

  • yes (phonologically)
  • yes (syntactically)
  • Note:

    A clitic is a kind of morpheme that does not fit well in the above classification system because it is phonologically bound but syntactically free.

    Generic
    A morpheme is a kind of
    See also
    • Comparison and contrast of wordform, word, morpheme, and syllable

    • Comparison of morpheme-morph-allomorph and phoneme-phone-allophone

    Sources

    Crystal 1985 198–199

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 145

    Mish 1991 772

    Pike and Pike 1982 450

    What is a morpheme type?

    Definition

    A morpheme type is a category based upon how a morpheme combines with other morphemes to form a word.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of morpheme types:

    What is a morphological process?

    Definition

    A morphological process is a means of changing a stem to adjust its meaning to fit its syntactic and communicational context.

    Discussion

    Most languages that are agglutinative in any way use suffixation. Some of these languages also use prefixation and infixation. Very few languages use only prefixation, and none employ only infixation or any of the other types of morphological processes listed below.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of morphological processes:
    Note:

    The process suppletion, though not strictly morphological, typically encodes the same type of information as the above morphological processes. It is often discussed in conjunction with them.

    See also
    Sources

    Matthews 1991 125–126, 130

    What is morphological typology?

    Definition

    Morphological typology is the categorization of a language according to the extent to which words in the language are clearly divisible into individual morphemes .

    Discussion

    Languages can be classified according to their degree of

    • synthesis (the degree to which a language uses multimorphemic words), along a continuum from isolating to polysynthetic languages, and
    • fusion (the degree to which a language fuses multiple grammatical meanings into a single morpheme), along a continuum from fusional to agglutinative languages.
    See also

    How to determine the morphological type of a language

    Source

    Payne, T. 1997a 27–29

    What is morphology?

    Definition

    Morphology is the study of the internal structure of words.

    Discussion

    Morphology can be thought of as a system of adjustments in the shapes of words that contribute to adjustments in the way speakers intend their utterances to be interpreted.

    Source:

    Payne, T. 1997a 20–21

    What is a morphophonemic rule?

    Definition

    A morphophonemic rule has the form of a phonological rule, but is restricted to a particular morphological environment.

    Discussion

    Morphophonemic rules are sensitive to their environment, unlike phonological rules. Whenever morphological information is required to specify the environment for an allophonic rule, the rule is morphophonemic.

    Examples

    /in-/ + responsible

    irresponsible

    /in-/ + logical

    illogical

    The rules n G l / __l and n G r / __r are not phonological rules in English, however. If they were, the prefixes /un-/ and /non-/ would also exhibit this regular pattern, but they do not.

    /un-/ + responsive

    (*urresponsive)

    unresponsive

    /un-/ + limited

    (*ullimited)

    unlimited

    /non-/ + retroactive

    (*nor-retroactive)

    non-retroactive

    /non-/ + lethal

    (*nol-lethal)

    non-lethal

    Therefore, there must be a morphophonemic rule which determines the allomorphs [il] and [ir] of the prefix /in-/.

    Source

    Payne, T.1997a :23–24

    What is morphophonemics?

    Definition

    Morphophonemics is the study of phonemic differences between allomorphs of the same morpheme ; a description of variations in a particular language.

    What is a morphosyntactic operation?

    Definition

    A morphosyntactic operation is an ordered, dynamic relation between one linguistic form and another.

    Discussion

    A morphosyntactic operation is often manifested (or coded) by a formal operator, such as a prefix , a suffix , a stress shift or a combination of two or more of these. However, some operations are not overtly coded. One method of noting the existence of a morphosyntactic operation that has no overt realization is to posit a zero morpheme .

    Contrast: morphosyntactic operations and morphological processes

    Morphological processes encode morphosyntactic operations.

    Morphosyntactic operations have conceptual content and may be associated with particular functions.

    Example:

    Plural formation is a morphosyntactic operation, whereas suffixation is a kind of morphological process that English uses to encode plural formation.

    Kinds
    Here are two kinds of morphosyntactic operations:
    Source

    Payne, T. 1997a 7–8, 29

    What is a motivation relation?

    Definition

    An interpropositional relation in which the speaker expresses a proposition(s) to increase the addressee 's willingness to accept the directive communicated in another proposition.

    Example (English)
  • The ballet company is giving four concerts next week. Tickets are $7.50. It’s new choreography and should be very entertaining.
  • The last sentence is intended to motivate attendance at the concerts mentioned in the first.

    Adapted from:

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 56

    Generic
    A motivation relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 55–56

    Matthiessen and Thompson 1987 25–26

    What is a move?

    Definition

    A move is a stretch of talk that forms a unit. It has a functional relation to the conversation of which it is a part.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of moves:
    Source

    Goffman 1981 24

    What is a multiplicative numeral?

    Definition

    A multiplicative numeral is a numeral that expresses how many fold or how many times.

    Examples (English)
    • once
    • twice
    • thrice
    Generic
    A multiplicative numeral is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 149

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 147