What is identity of illocutionary forces?

Definition

Identity of illocutionary forces is a relationship between two illocutionary forces such that when they are employed with the same propositional content, they have the same conditions for nondefective performance. The two forces thus serve the same purpose and have the same components of illocutionary force.

Source

Searle and Vanderveken 1985 82–83

What is an ideophone?

Definition

An ideophone is a member of a set of words that

  • are phonologically distinguishable from other words in a language
  • are often onomatopoeic, and
  • form one or more syntactic classes or subclasses, most typically adverbial .
Examples (Hausa)
  • Hausa adverbs have a distinctive obstruent-vowel-obstruent pattern, as in the following:

    • kaf ‘completely’
    • kas ‘specklessly’
    • kat ‘with a snapping sound’
  • Generic
    An ideophone is a kind of
    Source

    Schachter 1985 21

    What is an idiom?

    Definition

    An idiom is a multiword construction that

    • is a semantic unit whose meaning cannot be deduced from the meanings of its constituents , and
    • has a non-productive syntactic structure.
    Features
    • An idiom is a multiword expression. Individual components of an idiom can often be inflected in the same way individual words in a phrase can be inflected . This inflection usually follows the same pattern of inflection as the idiom's literal counterpart.

      Example:

      have a bee in one's bonnet

      He has bees in his bonnet.

    • An idiom behaves as a single semantic unit.

      • It tends to have some measure of internal cohesion such that it can often be replaced by a literal counterpart that is made up of a single word.

        Example:

        kick the bucket

        die

      • It resists interruption by other words whether they are semantically compatible or not.

        Example:

        pull one's leg

        *pull hard on one's leg

        *pull on one's left leg

      • It resists reordering of its component parts.

        Example:

        let the cat out of the bag

        *the cat got left out of the bag

    • An idiom has a non-productive syntactic structure. Only single particular lexemes can collocate in an idiomatic construction. Substituting other words from the same generic lexical relation set will destroy the idiomatic meaning of the expression.

      Example:

      eat one's words

      *eat one's sentences

      ?swallow one's words

    Discussion

    An idiom often shows the following characteristics:

    • It is syntactically anomalous. It has an unusual grammatical structure .

      Example:

      by and large

    • It contains unique, fossilized items.

      Examples:

      to and fro fro < from = away (Scottish)

      cobweb cob < cop = spider (Middle English)

    Some linguists contend that compound words may qualify as idioms (e.g. cobweb Wood 1986 ; 93), while others maintan that an idiom must be more lexically complex Cruse 1986 .

    Nonexamples

    Idioms contrast with the following:

    • Metaphors satisfy the first requirement for an idiom, that their meaning be obscure, but not the second, that they not be productive.

      Examples:

      throw in the towel

      throw in the sponge

    • Collocates may have restricted lexical possibilities or use archaic vocabulary such that they are not productive, but their meaning is not opaque.

      Examples:

      heavy drinking

      mete out

    Generic
    Sources

    Cruse 1986; 37–39

    Crystal 1985 ;152

    Pei and Gaynor 1954; 95–96

    Mish 1991; 598

    Drysdale 1981; 114

    Wood 1986

    What is illative case?

    Definition

    Illative case is a case that expresses motion into or direction toward the referent of the noun it marks.

    Discussion

    The term illative case is used especially in studies of Finno-Ugric grammar.

    Example (Finnish)
  • talo-on ‘into the house’
  • Source:

    Lyons 1968 299

  • Generic
    Illative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Lyons 1968 299

    Gove 1966 1126

    Crystal 1985 152

    What is an illocutionary act?

    Definition

    An illocutionary act is a complete speech act, made in a typical utterance , that consists of

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of illocutionary acts:
    Generic
    An illocutionary act is a kind of
    See also
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 1–2

    What is an illocutionary conditional?

    Definition

    An illocutionary conditional is a complex illocutionary act that consists of

    Example (English)
  • If Carter is the next Democratic candidate, I bet you five dollars that the Republicans will win.
  • The illocutionary act of betting is performed only if the condition, that Carter is the next Democratic candidate, is true.

    Generic
    An illocutionary conditional is a kind of
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 5

    What is an illocutionary connective?

    Definition

    An illocutionary connective is a connective that is used to join two or more illocutionary acts in one utterance .

    Example (English)
  • I will go to his house, but will he be there?
  • The word but joins two illocutionary acts: the assertion that the speaker will go to someone’s house and the question whether the person concerned will be there.

    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 4

    What is illocutionary consistency?

    Definition

    Illocutionary consistency is a property of a set of illocutionary acts such that it is possible, in at least one context of utterance , for the speaker to be committed to all the acts simultaneously.

    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 81

    What is an illocutionary denegation?

    Definition

    An illocutionary denegation is an illocutionary act that is made complex by the negation of its illocutionary force . It expresses that the speaker is not performing a particular illocutionary act.

    Example (English)
  • I do not promise to come.
  • This illocutionary act contrasts with I promise not to come, in which the speaker does perform an illocutionary act.

    Source:

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 4

    Generic
    An illocutionary denegation is a kind of
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 4–5

    What is illocutionary force?

    Definition

    Illocutionary force is the combination of the

    Examples (English)

    Illocutionary force distinguishes the following types of acts:

    • Asserting
    • Promising
    • Excommunicating
    • Exclaiming in pain
    • Inquiring
    • Ordering
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 152

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 1, 7–9, 20–21

    What is an illocutionary force indicating device?

    Definition

    An illocutionary force indicating device is any linguistic element that indicates or delimits the illocutionary force of an utterance .

    Examples (English)
    Kind
    Here is a kind of illocutionary force indicating device:
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 2

    What is illocutionary inconsistency?

    Definition

    Illocutionary inconsistency is a property of a set of illocutionary acts such that it is not possible, in any context of utterance, for the speaker to be committed to all the acts simultaneously.

    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 81

    What is an illocutionary point?

    Definition

    An illocutionary point is the basic purpose of a speaker in making an utterance.

    It is a component of illocutionary force.

    Discussion

    According to certain analyses, there are five kinds of illocutionary points:

    • To assert something
    • To commit to doing something
    • To attempt to get someone to do something
    • To bring about a state of affairs by the utterance
    • To express an attitude or emotion
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of illocutionary points:
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 13–15

    What is an illocutionary verb?

    Definition

    An illocutionary verb is a verb that, as part of its meaning, expresses

    Examples (English)
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 179–182

    What is an illustrative sentence?

    Introduction

    An illustrative sentence will help you

    • clarify the meaning of a lexeme
    • use a word in the correct grammatical context, and
    • gain insight into the culture and literary style of the language.
    Definition

    An illustrative sentence is an example that clarifies the usage of a particular sense of a lexeme.

    Discussion

    A good illustrative sentence meets the following criteria:

    • It clarifies the meaning of the lexeme.

      • It illustrates the meaning as defined in the sense.
      • It contains characteristic elements that reinforce and constrain the meaning, such as

        • attribute
        • behavior or action
        • usage
        • position or location, and
        • material composition.
        See:

        How to test an illustrative sentence for specificificity

    • It is easy to understand.

      • It is simple in construction (up to about 10 words).
      • It is clear in its references.
    • It is accurate.

      • It is accurate in grammar.
      • It is consistent.
      • It is accurate in its information about the culture.
      • It is true to the value system of the culture.
    • It is practical.

      • It is useable by a language learner in daily life.
    Useful sources
    • Literary publications written by respected speakers of the local language that are

      • traditional, but not archaic (unless you are illustrating an archaic word or a specific style), or
      • in the modern vernacular
    • Texts of stories and conversations
    • Elicited material that a language associate has obtained or provided
    Source

    Bartholomew and Schoenhals 1983 60–62

    What is an image schema?

    Definition

    An image schema is a mental pattern that

    • recurrently provides structured understanding of various experiences, and
    • is available for use in metaphor as a source domain to provide an understanding of yet other experiences.
    Examples (English)
  • A compulsion schema is used to provide an understanding of experiences, such as

    • a jet airplane
    • geological forces moving continental plates, and
    • metaphorically, the experience of peer pressure.
    Source:

    Johnson 1987 2

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of image schemas:
    Generic
    An image schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 2–4

    What is immediacy?

    Definition

    Immediacy is a distinction in place deixis that indicates location at a distance intermediate between locations considered proximal and distal .

    Generic
    Immediacy is a kind of
    Source

    Heath 1980 151

    What is an immediate constituent?

    Definition

    An immediate constituent is any one of the largest grammatical units that constitute a construction. Immediate constituents are often further reducible.

    Examples (English)
  • In the complex noun phrase the dog that killed the cat, each of the following items are immediate constituents:

    • the
    • dog
    • that killed the cat
  • Generic
    An immediate constituent is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 68

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 38

    Mish 1991 281

    What is immediate imperative mood?

    Definition

    Immediate imperative mood is an imperative mood that signals that the command or request is to be carried out right away.

    Generic
    Immediate imperative mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Sadock and Zwicky 1985 178

    Schachter and Otanes 1972 403

    What is immediate past tense?

    Definition

    Immediate past tense is past tense that refers to a time considered very recent in relation to the moment of utterance .

    Generic
    Immediate past tense is a kind of
    Source

    Dahl 1985 127

    What is imperative mood?

    Definition

    Imperative mood is mood that signals directive modality , especially in commands . Its use may be extended to signal permission.

    Discussion

    An imperative verb is typically not inflected for most of the grammatical categories associated with verbs in a language, especially tense and person .

    Example (English)

    Here is an example of a construction indicating imperative mood:

  • Come in!
  • Source:

    Palmer 1986 108

  • Kind
    Here is a kind of imperative mood:
    Generic
    Imperative mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 108

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 247

    Bybee 1985 171

    Palmer 1986 29, 97, 108, 111

    Mish 1991 603

    Crystal 1980 153

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 78, 803

    What is imperfective aspect?

    Definition

    Imperfective aspect is an aspect that expresses an event or state, with respect to its internal structure, instead of expressing it as a simple whole.

    Examples (English)
    • Progressive aspect

      Example:

      be + -ing

    • Habitual aspect with

      Example:

      used to

    Kinds
    Generic
    Imperfective aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Ducrot and Todorov 1979 307

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 97

    Comrie 1976a 24–25, 41–42

    Crystal 1985 153

    Mish 1991 604

    What are impermissible mixed metaphors?

    Definition

    Impermissible mixed metaphors are metaphors that conflict because they serve different purposes.

    Examples (English)
  • The

    argument-as-journey

    and

    argument-as-container

    metaphors serve different purposes. Argument-as-journey can address the “direction” of the argument and the argument-as-container can address the “amount of content” of the argument. The incompatibility of the ideas of “direction” and “amount” in the same sentence makes the following examples semantically impermissible:

  • * We can now follow the path of the core of the argument.
  • * The content of the argument proceeds as follows.
  • * The direction of his argument has no content.
  • * I am disturbed by the vacuous path of your argument.
  • Generic
    Impermissible mixed metaphors are a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 95

    What is an impersonal verb?

    Definition

    An impersonal verb is a verb that

    Generic
    An impersonal verb is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 97, 139

    Nida 1949 168

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 108

    Mish 1991 604

    What is an implicational scale?

    Definition

    An implicational scale is a set of lexical items that are

    • of the same constituent category, and
    • ordered in terms of their informativeness.

    Any sentence including one item of the set entails all of the propositions expressed by similar sentences containing less informative items. In addition, in keeping with the quantity maxim , the use of an item in the scale creates scalar implicatures that disallow the propositions expressed by similar sentences that contain more informative items.

    Examples (English)
    • {all, most, many, some}
    • {always, often, sometimes}
    • {succeed in, try to, want to}
    • {certain, probable, possible}
    Source

    Horn 1972 , cited by Levinson 1983 133–134

    What is an implicature?

    Definition

    An implicature is anything that is inferred from an utterance but that is not a condition for the truth of the utterance.

    Example (English)
  • The expression Some of the boys were at the party implicates in most contexts Not all of the boys were at the party.

    Source:

    Gazdar 1979 49

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of implicatures:
    Generic
    An implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 127

    Gazdar 1979 49–50

    What is imprecative mood?

    Definition

    Imprecative mood is a volitive mood that signals the speaker's wish that an unfavorable proposition will come about.

    Example (Turkish)
  • The suffix -esi indicates imprecative mood, as in the following construction (diacritical markings are not reproduced here):

    gor -mi -y -esi
    see -NEGATIVE -he -IMPRECATIVE
    ‘May he not see!’
  • Generic
    Imprecative mood is a kind of
    Source

    Lewis 1967 115 , cited by Sadock and Zwicky 1985 163

    What is an inalienable noun?

    Definition

    An inalienable noun is a noun that

    • refers to something viewed as permanently and necessarily possessed, and
    • is thus obligatorily expressed as possessed.

    It may require a distinguishing possessive form.

    Example (Awa, Papua New Guinea)
  • In Awa, the body part and kinship terms are expressed as inalienable nouns.

    Source:

    McKaughan and Loving 1973

  • Generic
    An inalienable noun is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 181

    McKaughan and Loving 1973 31

    What is an inanimate class?

    Definition

    An inanimate class is a category of nouns that do not have human or animal referents .

    Discussion

    In some languages, the inanimate class is a grammaticalized noun class.

    Generic
    An inanimate class is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 93

    Lyons 1968 286–288

    Crystal 1985 17

    What is inchoative aspect?

    Definition

    Inchoative aspect is an aspect that expresses the beginning of an event or state.

    Generic
    Inchoative aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 34, 181

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 98

    Nida 1949 168

    Bybee 1985 147–148

    Mish 1991 608–609

    What is an inclusive alternative relation?

    Definition

    An inclusive alternative relation is an alternative relation in which more than one of the propositions may be true or fulfilled.

    Example (English)
  • Harry may know, or Eric may know, or Cecil may know.

    Source:

    Hollenbach 1975 19

  • Generic
    An inclusive alternative relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Dijk 1977 64

    Hollenbach 1975 19

    What is inclusive first person deixis?

    Definition

    Inclusive first person deixis is deixis that refers to a group including the addressee(s) .

    Generic
    Inclusive first person deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 182

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 98

    What is an indefinite concessive relation?

    Definition

    An indefinite concessive relation is a concession relation in which the clause that expresses the concession contains a form, such as the following, that expresses a range:

    Examples (English)
    • No matter what he said, she still refused to go out with him.
    • Whoever he is, I’m not opening that door.
    Source:

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 199

    Generic
    An indefinite concessive relation is a kind of
    Source

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 198–199

    What is an indefinite pronoun?

    Definition

    An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that belongs to a class whose members indicate indefinite reference.

    Examples (English)
    • anybody
    • one
    • somebody
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 109

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 376

    Mish 1991 612

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 137

    Crystal 1980 155

    What is indefiniteness?

    Definition

    Indefiniteness is a kind of definiteness indicating that the referent(s) of an expression are not presumed to be identifiable.

    The referent is not identifiable because of a lack of shared knowledge or situation, including no previous mention of the referent.

    Discussion

    Certain demonstratives and pronouns often are used to indicate indefiniteness.

    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of words that indicate indefiniteness:

    • a
    • some
    • somebody
    Generic
    Indefinite is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 98

    Crystal 1980 263

    Lyons 1968 276

    Mish 1991 612

    Hawkins, J. 1978 202

    What is indirect illocution?

    Definition

    Indirect illocution is an illocutionary act in which the speaker expresses another illocutionary force other than that literally expressed in the utterance, by relying on ,

    Kinds
    Generic
    An indirect illocution is a kind of
    Sources

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 25

    Searle 1979 30–32

    Levinson 1983 274

    What is an indirect object?

    Definition

    An indirect object is a grammatical relation that is one means of expressing the semantic role of goal and other similar roles.

    It is proposed for languages in which the role is distinct from the direct object and the oblique object on the basis of multiple independent syntactic or morphological criteria, such as the following:

    • Having a particular case marking, commonly dative
    • Governing an agreement affix on the verb, such as person or number
    • Being distinct from oblique relations in that it may be relativized
    Generic
    An indirect object is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 156

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 155–156

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 99

    Givón 1984 109–110

    Mish 1991 614

    Andrews, A. 1985 126–128

    Comrie 1989 66

    What is indirect speech?

    Definition

    Indirect speech is reported speech that is presented with grammatical modifications, rather than as it might have been uttered by the original speaker .

    Example (English)
  • Patrick Henry said to give him liberty or give him death.
  • Generic
    Indirect speech is a kind of
    Sources

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1021, 1026, 1029

    Mish 1991 614

    Crystal 1985 156

    What is an individual-group lexical relation?

    Definition

    An individual-group lexical relation is an association between two lexical units in which one lexical unit is a collective term of the other.

    Examples (English)
  • Individual

    Group

  • lion
  • sheep
  • bee
  • wolves
  • pride
  • flock
  • swarm
  • pack
  • Underlying structure

    The underlying structure of a individual-group lexical relation set is a set of pairs .

    Frames

    Here are some frames for testing and eliciting an individual-group lexical relation:

    • A group of Xs is called a Y.
    • A Y is a collection of Xs.

    What is inessive case?

    Definition

    Inessive case is a case that expresses a location within the referent of the noun it marks.

    Discussion

    The term inessive case is used especially in Finnish grammatical studies.

    Example (Finnish)
  • talo -ssa
    house -in(INESSIVE)
    ‘in the house’
    Source:

    Lyons 1968 299

  • Generic
    Inessive case is a kind of
    Sources

    Lyons 1968 299

    Gove 1966 1156

    Crystal 1985 156

    What is an inferable entity?

    Definition

    An inferable entity is a referent that may be inferred by the addressee from other information that has already been given.

    Example (English)
  • I got on a bus yesterday and the driver was drunk.
  • In the above sentence, the mention of bus makes a driver inferable; a bus is assumed to have a driver. Thus the addressee may assume, without further specification from the speaker, that it is the driver of the bus who is spoken of.
  • Source:

    Prince 1981 233

  • Generic
    An inferable entity is a kind of
    Source

    Prince 1981 233, 236

    What is inferior status?

    Definition

    Inferior status is social deixis that encodes a low degree of status.

    Examples (French, German)
  • The second-person pronouns tu (French) and du (German) may be used to address those considered to be social inferiors.
  • Generic
    Inferior is a kind of
    Source

    Brown, R. and Gilman 1960 256

    What is an infield distinction?

    Definition

    An infield distinction is a distinction in place deixis that indicates that a location is in visual range.

    Generic
    Infield distinction is a kind of
    Source

    Denny 1978 73

    What is an infinitive?

    Definition

    An infinitive is the base form of a verb. It is unmarked for inflectional categories such as the following:

    Discussion

    In English, the infinitive form may be used alone or in conjunction with the particle to.

    Generic
    An infinitive is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 100

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 111

    Crystal 1980 184

    Palmer 1986 156

    Mish 1991 619

    What is an infix?

    Definition

    An infix is an affix that is inserted within a root . or stem.

    Example: Philippines (Tagalog)

    The focus marker -um- is a infix which is added after the first consonant of the root.

  • bili: root ‘buy’
  • -um-: infix ‘AGT’
  • bumili: word ‘bought’
  • Example (Chickasaw)

    In verb roots, a glottal stop is inserted to form a negative.

    Example (English)

    bloomin of abso-bloomin-lutely

    Generic
    An infix is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 184

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 111

    Anderson, S. 1985 166

    What is infixation?

    Definition

    Infixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme attaches within a root or stem .

    The kind of affix involved in this process is called an infix .

    Example: Philippines (Tagalog)

    The focus marker -um- is a infix which is added after the first consonant of the root.

  • bili: root ‘buy’
  • -um-: infix ‘AGT’
  • bumili: word ‘bought’
  • Generic
    Infixation is a kind of:

    What is inflection?

    Definition

    Inflection is variation in the form of a word, typically by means of an affix , that expresses a grammatical contrast which is obligatory for the stem’s word class in some given grammatical context.

    Discussion

    In contrast to derivation , inflection

    • does not result in a change of word class, and
    • usually produces a predictable, nonidiosyncratic change of meaning.
    Characteristics of inflectional operations

    Inflectional operations ground the semantic content of a root according to place, time, and participant reference, without substantially affecting the basic semantic content of the root. They often specify when an event or situation took place, who or what were the participants, and sometimes where, how or whether an event or situation really took place. In other words, roots can be inflected for such things as:

  • Agreement : person, number, and gender
  • Sequential, temporal or epistemological grounding : tense, aspect, mode
  • Inflectional operations

    • are grammatically required in certain syntactic environments

      Example: The main verb of an English sentence must be inflected for subject and tense.

    • tend to be regular and productive, in comparison to derivational operations, and
    • tend to occur in paradigms .
    Example (English)
    • In the following English sentence, come is inflected for person and number by the suffix -s:

      The mailman comes about noon.

    Example (Spanish)
    • In the following Spanish noun phrase, las and rojas are inflected for agreement with manzanas in grammatical gender by -a and in number by -s:
  • las manzanas rojas ‘the red apples’
  • Generic
    Inflection is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 157

    Payne, T. 1997a 26, 233, 234

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1548

    Mish 1991 620

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 139

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 112

    Bybee 1985 2, 99

    What is an inflectional affix?

    Definition

    An inflectional affix is an affix that

    • expresses a grammatical contrast that is obligatory for its stem 's word class in some given grammatical context
    • does not change the word class of its stem
    • is typically located farther from its root than a derivational affix, and
    • produces a predictable, nonidiosyncratic change of meaning.
    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of grammatical categories that are expressed by inflectional affixes:

    Generic
    An inflectional affix is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 184

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 112

    Mish 1991 620

    Bybee 1985 2, 99

    What is an inflectional category?

    Definition

    An inflectional category is a class of affixes that share a common grammatical feature.

    Also known as:

    grammatical category

    Examples
    • Case
    • Number
    • Gender
    • Tense
    • Aspect
    Nonexamples

    The term “inflectional category” needs to be distinguished from these closely related terms:

    • Words containing different affixes from the same inflectional category form an inflectional paradigm.
    • Stems with a particular pattern of inflection form an inflectional class.

    What is informal language?

    Definition

    Informal language is language use characterized by

    • spontaneous speech in situations that may be described as natural or "real-life," and
    • the use of a "low” dialect or language in preference to a “high” one.
    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of language domains where informal language takes place:

    • Instructions to subordinates
    • Conversation with family and friends
    • Portrayal of "real" life in a soap opera
    Source:

    Ferguson 1959 329

    Generic
    Informal language is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 125

    Britto 1986 298, 315–316

    Fasold 1984 35

    Ferguson 1959 329

    What is the informativeness principle?

    Definition

    The informativeness principle is an implicature in which the addressee is licensed to apply his or her knowledge of the world to infer an implicature that is informationally stronger than the actual utterance.

    This principle, in addition to the cooperative principle and conversational maxims , enables the addressee to resolve apparent conflicts with the quantity maxim.

    Example (English)
  • The utterance He turned on the switch and the motor started generally implicates the stronger utterance He turned on the switch and this caused the motor to start.
  • The quantity maxim would ordinarily disallow such a strong implicature on the assumption that the cooperative speaker is making his contribution adequately informative. However, the informativeness principle allows the addressee to infer the implicature based on the knowledge of how motors start.

    Source:

    Levinson 1983 146

  • Generic
    An informativeness principle is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 145–147

    What is an initiative time latency?

    Definition

    An initiative time latency is the time between the end of a participant's turn and the resumption of his or her speakership in the absence of a response from any other participant.

    Source

    McLaughlin 1984 111–112

    What is an insertion sequence?

    Definition

    An insertion sequence is a sequence of turns that intervenes between the first and second parts of an adjacency pair .

    Examples (English)
  • In the following exchange, the turns which separate the parts of the request-acceptance pair are insertion sequences:

  • A: I wanted to order some more paint.(Request)
  • B: Yes, how many tubes would you like, sir? (Question 1)
  • A: Um, what's the price with tax? (Question 2)
  • B: Er, I'll just work that out for you. (Hold)
  • A: Thanks. (Acceptance)
  • B: Three nineteen a tube, sir. (Answer 2)
  • A: I'll have five, then. (Answer 1)
  • B: Here you go. (Acceptance)
  • Generic
    An insertion sequence is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 304–305

    What is instrument as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Instrument is the semantic role of an inanimate thing that an agent uses to implement an event. It is the stimulus or immediate physical cause of an event.

    Discussion

    Instrument words are usually nouns occurring in the noun phrase of a clause:

  • Someone cut the bread with a knife.
  • In some languages, the noun occurs in a second clause or serial verb construction :

  • Someone took a knife (and) cut the bread.
  • Examples (English)
    • The cook cut the cake with a knife.
    • She used a crayon to scribble a note.
    • That window was broken by a hammer.
    Generic
    Instrument is a kind of
    Sources

    Larson 1984 199–203

    Longacre 1983 159–161

    What is instrumental case?

    Definition

    Instrumental case is a case indicating that the referent of the noun it marks is the means of the accomplishment of the action expressed by the clause .

    Generic
    Instrumental case is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 187

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 114

    Mish 1991 627

    What is an intended perlocutionary effect?

    Definition

    An intended perlocutionary effect is what a speaker intends an utterance to achieve in an addressee .

    Discussion

    Some analysts consider an intended perlocutionary effect to be part of the definition of a type of illocutionary act.

    Examples
    • To inform the addressee
    • To get the addressee to do something
    • To get the addressee to have a particular expectation
    Source

    Reiss 1985 41–42

    What is an intensifier?

    Definition

    An intensifier heightens or lowers the intensity of meaning of an item.

    Examples (English)

    In traditional English grammar, intensifiers are considered adverbs.

    Here are some examples of intensifiers:

    • very good
    • hardly to the point
    Source

    Crystal 1980 188

    See also

    What is an adverb? (Linguistics)

    What is an interjection?

    Definition

    An interjection is a form, typically brief, such as one syllable or word, which is used most often as an exclamation or part of an exclamation.

    An interjection

    • typically expresses an emotional reaction, often with respect to an accompanying sentence
    • is not syntactically related to other accompanying expressions, and
    • may include a combination of sounds not otherwise found in the language.
    Examples (English)
    • psst
    • ugh
    • excellent
    • well, well
    Sources:

    Crystal 1980 188–189

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 115

    Generic
    An interjection is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 188–189

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 115

    Mish 1990:631

    What is an internal relation?

    Definition

    An internal relation is an interpropositional relation that relates the situations described in the propositions by their communicative usage as opposed to relating the situations described by the propositions.

    Examples (English)
  • If you’re free tonight, there's a party at Bill’s house.
  • This example contrasts with the following sentence, which is an example of an external relation sequence:

  • If it doesn’t rain, there will be a party at Bill’s house.
  • Generic
    An internal relation is a kind of
    Source

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 239–241

    What is an internal relative clause?

    Definition

    An internal relative clause is a relative clause whose head noun phrase occurs within the relative clause itself.

    Also known as:

    Internal-headed relative clause

    Discussion

    This type of relative clause, which occurs only in SOV languages, takes the place of a regular noun phrase argument in the main clause.

    The meaning of an internal relative clause may be ambiguous in languages that do not grammatically indicate which of the noun phrases within the relative clause is the head noun phrase.

    Examples (Imbabura Quechua)

    [kan

    kwitsa

    -man

    kwintu

    -ta

    willa

    -shka

    -ka]

    llapa

    you

    girl

    to

    story

    ACCUSATIVE

    tell

    NOMINALIZER

    TOPIC

    very

    sumaj -mi
    pretty VALIDATOR

    This example means either ‘The girl to whom you told the story is very pretty’ or ‘The story that you told to the girl is very pretty’.

    Source:

    Comrie 1989 146

    Generic
    An internal relative clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Keenan 1985 143

    Comrie 1989 145–146

    What is an interpretation relation?

    Definition

    An interpretation relation is an interpropositional relation in which some proposition(s) relate the content of some other proposition(s) to a different framework of ideas, a framework other than the speaker's value judgments.

    Example (English)
  • A steep decline in capital spending has occurred; such a decline is unusual at this stage in an economic expansion.

    Adapted from:

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 67

  • Generic
    An interpretation relation is a kind of
    Source

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 67–69

    What is an interpropositional relation?

    Definition

    An interpropositional relation is an explicit or inferred coherence relation between propositions or groups of propositions that are typically expressed by clauses or larger portions of text.

    Interpropositional relations can account for the coherence between portions of text.

    Discussion

    The term interpropositional relation has been chosen here as a rubric for relations that various authors have proposed, using a variety of terminology, in accounting for text structure or coherence.

    Not every author would agree that this term is the best one for these relations, nor would all agree that every relation cited here belongs in a list of interpropositional relations. The controversy occurs either because of a disputation over the validity of a relation itself, or some restriction on the usage of the term interpropositional relation.

    Example (English)
  • The following construction is an example of an inferred solutionhood relation , a particular kind of interpropositional relation:

  • I’m hungry; let’s go to the Fuji Gardens.

    Source:

    Mann and Thompson 1985 1

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of interpropositional relations as found in Mann and Thompson 1985.:

    Here are some kinds of propositional relations as found, for example, in Banker 1996 :

    Equal prominence
    • Chronological

      • sequential
      • simultaneous
    • Nonchronological

      • conjoining
      • alternation

    Unequal prominence

    • Orientation

      • orienter-CONTENT
      • circumstance-NUCLEUS
    • Chronological

      • move(n)-GOAL
      • occasion-OUTCOME
      • problem-RESOLUTION
    • Nonchronological

      • restatement

        • NUCLEUS-equivalent
        • GENERIC-specific(n)
        • generic-SPECIFIC
        • contraction-amplification
        • negative-POSITIVE
      • clarification
    Generic
    An interpropositional relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Hollenbach 1975 2

    Fleming 1988 27

    Beekman and Callow 1974 287–288

    Mann and Thompson 1985 1

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 77

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 226–228, 238

    What is interrogative mood?

    Definition

    An interrogative mood is an epistemic mood that signals that the speaker wishes to elicit information concerning the content of his or her utterance from the addressee .

    Generic
    An interrogative mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Nida 1949 168

    Palmer 1986 30–31

    What is an interrogative pro-form?

    Definition

    An interrogative pro-form is a pro-form that is used in questions to stand for the item questioned.

    Examples (English)
    • who
    • what
    • when
    • where
    • why
    Generic
    An interrogative pro-form is a kind of
    Source

    Schachter 1985 34

    What is intimate social deixis?

    Definition

    Intimate social deixis is deixis that expresses a very high degree of solidarity between the speaker and the addressee .

    Generic
    Intimate social deixis a kind of
    Source

    Anderson, S. and Keenan 1985 272

    What is intonation?

    Definition

    Intonation is the system of levels (rising and falling) and variations in pitch sequences within speech.

    What is intransitivity?

    Definition

    Intransitivity is a term that describes a verb or clause that is unable to take a direct object .

    Examples (English): Intransitive verbs
    • come
    • sleep
    Generic
    Intransitivity is a kind of
    Source

    Crystal 1985 316

    What is irony?

    Definition

    Irony is a trope in which an expression is used in such a fashion as to convey the opposite meaning of what is expressed.

    Example (English)
  • Saying you’re a pretty sight to a mud-splattered child is an illustration of irony.
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of irony:
    Generic
    Irony is a kind of
    Source

    Corbett 1971 489–490

    What is irrealis modality?

    Definition

    Irrealis modality is a modality that connotes that the proposition with which it is associated is nonactual or nonfactual.

    Kind
    Here is a kind of irrealis modality:
    Generic
    Irrealis modality is a kind of
    Sources

    Noonan 1985 96

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 241

    What is an irregular verb?

    Definition

    An irregular verb is a verb which does not conform to an expected inflectional pattern.

    Discussion

    The adjective irregular can be applied to members of other word classes besides verbs.

    Generic
    An irregular verb is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 119

    Mish 1991 640

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 103

    Crystal 1980 164

    What is an isolating language?

    Definition

    An isolating language is a language in which almost every word consists of a single morpheme.

    Also known as:

    Analytic language

    Discussion

    Isolating languages are especially common in Southeast Asia.

    Example (Vietnamese)

    khi tôi dên nhà ban tôi, chúng tôi bát dâu làm bài.

    when I come house friend I Plural I begin do lesson

    When I came to my friend's house, we began to do lessons.

    Source:

    Comrie 1989 43

    Contrast

    The opposite of a highly isolating language is a highly polysynthetic language.

    What is iterative aspect?

    Definition

    Iterative aspect is an aspect that expresses the repetition of an event or state.

    Example (English)
    • The English prefix re- expresses iterative aspect:

      rewrite

    Example (Hungarian)
    • The Hungarian suffix -gel expresses iterative aspect (diacritical markings are not reproduced here):
  • nevetgel ‘give a series of laughs’
  • Source:

    Comrie 1985a 343

    Kind
    Here is a kind of iterative aspect:
    Generic
    Iterative aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Comrie 1985a 343

    Mish 1991 643

    Crystal 1985 167