What is factitive as a semantic role?

Definition

Factitive is the semantic role of an referent that results from the action or state identified by a verb .

Generic
Factitive is a kind of
Source

Lyons 1977b 491

What is failure of fit?

Definition

Failure of fit is a lack of correspondence between the state of affairs

Examples (English)
  • The falsity of an assertive act 's contents
  • The status of a commissive act 's contents as broken by the speaker
  • The status of a directive act's contents as unfulfilled by the person from whom compliance is sought
  • The case of a declarative act that is unsuccessfully performed
Source

Searle and Vanderveken 1985 95–98

What is familiarity?

Definition

Familiarity is a kind of social deixis that expresses a high degree of solidarity between the speaker and addressee .

Examples (French, German)
  • Some uses of the second-person pronouns tu in French and du in German signal familiarity.

    Source:

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 83

  • Generic
    Familiarity is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 83

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 72

    Brown, R. and Gilman 1960 258

    What is feminine gender?

    Definition

    Feminine gender is a grammatical gender that

    • marks nouns that have human or animal female referents, and
    • often marks nouns that have referents that do not carry distinctions of sex.
    Examples (Spanish)
    • la mujer ‘the woman’
    • la gallina ‘the hen’
    • la mesa ‘the table’
    Generic
    Feminine gender is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 93

    Mish 1991 456

    What is a field distinction?

    Definition

    A field distinction is a type of place deixis that expresses an opposition between locations in visual range and those not in visual range.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of field distinctions:
    Source

    Denny 1978 73

    What is a field notebook?

    Definition

    A field notebook is a permanent record of your language data.

    Features
    • Sturdy and bound
    • Readily available as part of the regular stock in a local bookstore

    What is a figurative sense?

    Definition

    A figurative sense is a meaning that is derived from a primary sense by analogy (for example, personification), association (for example, metonymy ), or similarity (for example, metaphor and simile ).

    Discussion

    A figurative sense shares one or more supplemental semantic components with the primary sense of a lexeme, but it often negates one or more of the obligatory semantic components. As a result, it is only related to the primary sense in an abstract or generalized way.

    A figurative sense will often bring to mind a picture of the primary sense. However, a literal interpretation of the figurative sense will be strange, nonsensical, or wrong. Figurative senses often have few collocates and limited contexts of usage.

    Examples (English)

    The word jungle has a primary sense meaning "land covered with dense growth of trees, tall vegetation, and vines, typically in tropical regions, and inhabited by predatory animals".

    By extension of meaning, jungle can refer to any place with a dense, tangled growth of trees and vegetation, as illustrated in the sentence, "I need to take care of the jungle in my backyard." This meaning is a secondary sense of jungle.

    The meaning of jungle can further be extended in a figurative sense to include non-plants and refer to any tangled, disorganized set of objects, as in "You can find it if you dig through the jungle in my closet."

    It may be even further extended in a more abstract way to mean anything that confuses by its tangled or complex nature, as in "Life can be a jungle sometimes."

    What is a final clause?

    Definition

    A final clause is the last clause in a clause chain . It is distinguished from medial clauses by a difference in verb morphology.

    Generic
    A final clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1985 264

    Longacre 1983 299

    What is a finite clause?

    Definition

    A finite clause is a clause with a finite verb .

    Generic
    A finite clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 61

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 149–150, 992

    Mish 1991 464, 802

    What is a finite verb?

    Definition

    A finite verb is a verb form that

    • occurs in an independent clause, and
    • is fully inflected according to the inflectional categories marked on verbs in the language.
    Generic
    A finite verb is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 73

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 85

    Crystal 1980 146

    Palmer 1986 162

    Mish 1991 464

    What is a first part?

    Definition

    A first part is the first utterance in an adjacency pair .

    Source

    Levinson 1983 303–304

    What is first person deixis?

    Definition

    First person deixis is deictic reference that refers to

    Examples (English)
    • The following singular pronouns :

      • I
      • me
      • myself
      • my
      • mine
    • The following plural pronouns:

      • we
      • us
      • ourselves
      • our
      • ours
    • Am, the first person form of the verb be
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of first person deixis:
    Generic
    First person deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 263

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 168

    Mish 1991 466

    Levinson 1983 62

    Fleming 1988 322

    What is fit?

    Definition

    Fit is a correspondence, or lack of correspondence, between the state of affairs described by the propositional content of an illocutionary act and the state of affairs in the world.

    Examples (English)
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 52–53, 96–98

    What is a fixed collocation?

    Definition

    A fixed collocation is a phrase or construction

    • which is decompositional, and
    • whose constituents recurrently combine with each other.
    Features
    • Constituents repeatedly co-occur with each other.
    • Constituents are bound specifically to each other.
    • Constituents do not co-occur with other lexical units freely. Only a few, if any, words may be substituted for the co-occurring lexical units.
    • Correct usage is not predictable on the basis of the known function or meaning of the co-occurring lexical units.

    What is a fixed lexical collocation?

    Definition

    A fixed lexical collocation is a collocation of two or more co-occurring lexemes in an unchanging syntactic and semantic relationship.

    Discussion

    Fixed lexical collocations typically consist of constructions between nouns , verbs , adverbs , and adjectives .

    What is a flouting implicature?

    Definition

    A flouting implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressee 's assumption that the speaker is deliberately breaking (flouting) a conversational maxim while still being cooperative.

    Discussion

    The term flouting implicature is a coinage. The concept of an implicature derived from the flouting of a maxim is an important one in the literature of conversational implicature, but there is not a specific name for it. It would commonly be more appropriate to speak of an implicature derived from the speaker’s flouting of a conversational maxim.

    Example (English)
  • In the following exchange, B flouts the maxim of manner, thereby implying that an open discussion of the ice cream is not desired:

  • A: Let’s get the kids something.
  • B: Okay, but I veto I-C-E C-R-E-A-M-S.

  • Source:

    Levinson 1983 104

  • Generic
    A flouting implicature is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 104–105

    What is focus?

    Definition

    Focus is a term that refers to information, in a sentence , that

    • is new
    • is of high communicative interest
    • is marked by stress
    • typically occurs late in the sentence, and
    • complements the presupposed information typically presented early in the sentence.
    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of focused elements:

    • You books are on the shelf.
    • It was math that gave him trouble.
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 148, 283, 397

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 86, 1361–1363

    Talmy 1985 79–80

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 237

    What is force as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Force is the semantic role of an entity that instigates an action, but not consciously or voluntarily.

    Discussion

    Force is distinct from agent because an agent is volitional, while a force is not.

    Source

    Payne, T. 1997a 49

    What is a force schema?

    Definition

    A force schema is an image schema that involves physical or metaphorical causal interaction. It includes the following elements:

    • A source and target of the force
    • A direction and intensity of the force
    • A path of motion of the source and/or target
    • A sequence of causation
    Examples (English)
    Physical
    • Wind
    • Gravity
    Metaphorical
    • Love-as-a-physical-force

    • Justice-as-balance

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of force schemata:
    Generic
    A force schema is a kind of
    Sources

    Johnson 1987 42–44, 90

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 49

    Kovecses 1986 90

    What is formal language?

    Definition

    Formal language is language use characterized by

    • speech before a passive audience
    • the assumption of a role by the speaker
    • the use of artificial means of communication such as writing or electronics, and
    • the use of a “high” dialect or language in preference to a “low” one.
    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of domains where formal language takes place:

    • A sermon
    • A political speech
    • A lecture
    • A letter
    • Poetry
    Source:

    Ferguson 1959 329

    Generic
    Formal is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 125

    Britto 1986 298, 315–316

    Fasold 1984 35

    Ferguson 1959 329

    What is formality?

    Definition

    Formality is a kind of social deixis that expresses the setting or social activity in which language use takes place.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of formality:
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 219

    Levinson 1983 91

    What is a fortis consonant?

    Definition

    A fortis consonant is a “strong” consonant produced by increased tension in the vocal apparatus. These strong consonants tend to be long, voiceless, aspirated, and high.

    What is a fossilized term?

    Definition

    A fossilized term is a word or root that occurs only as an archaic expression.

    Discussion

    A fossilized term is often an

    idiom

    or part of an idiom.

    Examples (English)
    • fro in to and fro
    • cob- in cobweb, from archaic cop, meaning ‘spider’
    Sources:

    Mish 1991 487

    Wood 1986 63

    Generic
    A fossil is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 127

    Mish 1991 487

    Wood 1986 63

    What is a free morpheme?

    Definition

    A free morpheme is a grammatical unit that can occur by itself. However, other morphemes such as affixes can be attached to it.

    Also known as:

    unbound morpheme

    Example (English)

    The morpheme dog

    Generic
    A free morpheme is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 88

    Mish 1991 490

    What is a free translation?

    Definition

    A free translation is a translation that reproduces the general meaning of the original text.

    It may or may not closely follow the form or organization of the original.

    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 77

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 299

    What is free variation?

    Definition

    Free variation is the interchangeable relationship between two phones , in which the phones may substitute for one another in the same environment without causing a change in meaning.

    Discussion

    Free variation may occur between allophones or phonemes .

    Examples (English)
  • In utterance-final position, there is free variation between unreleased and aspirated plosives, as demonstrated below:

  • [hQt|] ‘hat’
  • [hQtH] ‘hat’
  • In the word ‘data’, there is free variation between the phonemes /eJ/ and /Q/, as demonstrated below:

  • [deJR«] ‘data’
  • [dQR«] ‘data’
  • See also

    What is a function word?

    Definition

    A function word is a word which have no lexical meaning, and whose sole function is to express grammatical relationships.

    Also known as:

    grammatical word, empty word,

    functor

    What is a fusional language?

    Definition

    A fusional language is a language in which one form of a morpheme can simultaneously encode several meanings.

    Description

    Fusional languages may have a large number of morphemes in each word, but morpheme boundaries are difficult to identify because the morphemes are fused together.

    Most European languages are somewhat fusional.

    Example (Spanish)

    In Spanish the in habló 'to speak' simultaneously codes indicative mode, third person, singular, past tense, and perfective aspect. If any one of these meaning components changes, the form of the verbal suffix must change.

    Source:

    Payne, T. 1997a 28

    Contrast

    The opposite of a highly fusional language is a highly agglutinative language.

    What is future perfect tense?

    Definition

    Future perfect tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time located before a contextually determined temporal reference point that must be located in the future relative to the moment of utterance .

    Example (English)
  • By that time, he will have returned.
  • Generic
    Future perfect tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Comrie 1985b 69–71

    Mish 1991 501

    What is future tense?

    Definition

    Future tense is an absolute tense that refers to a time after the moment of utterance.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of future tenses:
    Generic
    Future tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 92

    Mish 1991 500

    What is future-in-future tense?

    Definition

    Future-in-future tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time located in the future, relative to a temporal reference point that itself is located in the future relative to the moment of utterance .

    Example (Latin)
  • daturus erit ‘he will be about to give’ [diacritics not shown]
  • Source:

    Comrie 1985b 74

  • Generic
    Future-in-future tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 74–75

    What is future-in-past tense?

    Definition

    Future-in-past tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time located in the future, relative to a contextually determined temporal reference point that itself must be located in the past relative to the moment of utterance .

    Example (English)
  • John left for the front; he would never return.
  • Generic
    Future-in-past tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 75

    What is future-perfect-in-past tense?

    Definition

    Future-perfect-in-past tense is an absolute-relative tense that involves three points in time in the past. The tense refers to a time that is in the future, relative to another point in the past, but is in the past relative to a point in its future. All these points in time are in the past relative to the moment of utterance .

    Example (English)
  • John left for the front; by the time he should return, the field would have been burnt to stubble.
  • The burning of the field is in the future relative to John’s leaving, but is in the past relative to his returning. All these events are in the past relative to the moment of utterance.

    Source:

    Comrie 1985b 76

    Generic
    Future-perfect-in-past tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 75–76