What is abessive case?

Definition

Abessive case is a case that expresses the lack or absence of the referent of the noun it marks.

It has the meaning of the English preposition without.

Discussion

The term abessive case is used especially in studies of Finno-Ugric grammar. Its synonym caritive case is used in the description of some other languages, notably Caucasian ones.

Generic
Abessive case is a kind of
Sources

Pei and Gaynor 1954 3, 35

Gove 1966 3

What is ablative case?

Definition

Ablative case is a case that expresses a variety of meanings including

  • instrument
  • cause
  • location
  • source, and
  • time.
Discussion

The term ablative case is used especially in Latin grammar.

Generic
Ablative case is a kind of
Sources

Crystal 1980 7

Hartmann and Stork 1972 1

Pei and Gaynor 1954 3

Lyons 1968 299

Mish 1991 45

What is an absolute adjective?

Definition

An absolute adjective is an adjective which functions as a noun .

Discussion

This term absolute adjective is applicable, by extension, to other parts of speech which are used similarly, such as possessive pronouns or numerals.

Examples (English)
  • The poor
  • The mystical in Blake’s poetry
Generic
An absolute adjective is a kind of
Sources

Pei and Gaynor 1954 4

Mish 1991 46

What is absolute social deixis?

Definition

Absolute social deixis is deictic reference to some social characteristic of a referent (especially a person) apart from any relative ranking of referents.

Discussion

Often absolute social deixis is expressed in certain forms of address. The form of address will include no comparison of the ranking of the speaker and addressee ; there will be only a simple reference to the absolute status of the addressee.

Examples (English)
  • Mr. President
  • Your Honor
Generic
Absolute social deixis is a kind of
Source

Levinson 1979 207

What is absolute tense?

Definition

Absolute tense is a tense that refers to a time in relation to the moment of utterance .

Kinds
Generic
Absolute tense is a kind of
Source

Comrie 1985b 36

What is absolute-relative tense?

Definition

Absolute-relative tense is a tense

  • that refers to a time in relation to a temporal reference point that, in turn, is referred to in relation to the moment of utterance
  • in which the time and the reference point are not identical, and
  • the reference point and the moment of utterance are not identical.
Kinds
Generic
Absolute-relative tense is a kind of
Source

Comrie 1985b 64–65

What is absolutive case?

Definition

Absolutive case is the case of nouns in ergative-absolutive languages that would generally be the subjects of intransitive verbs or the objects of transitive verbs in the translational equivalents of nominative-accusative languages such as English.

Discussion

Absolutive case is less likely to be formally indicated on the noun than ergative case is.

Generic
Absolutive case is a kind of
Sources

Anderson, S. 1985 181

Crystal 1985 1

Andrews, A. 1985 138

What is an abstract noun?

Definition

An abstract noun is a noun that denotes something viewed as a nonmaterial referent .

Discussion

An abstract noun is frequently treated as a mass noun .

Generic
An abstract noun is a kind of
Sources

Hartmann and Stork 1972 2

Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 247

What is accompaniment as a semantic role?

Definition

Accompaniment is the semantic role of a thing that participates in close association with an agent, causer, or affected in an event.

Example (English)
  • In the following sentence, with has the semantic role of accompaniment:

  • I ate dinner with my wife.
  • Generic
    Accompaniment is a kind of
    Source

    Larson 1984 199–203

    What is an account?

    Definition

    An account is an explanation as to why a dispreferred second part is given as a response in an adjacency pair .

    Discussion

    An account is a frequent feature of dispreferred second parts.

    Example (English)
  • B’s response I’m supervising here in the following adjacency pair is an account:

  • A: What about coming here on the way; or doesn’t that give you enough time?
  • B: Well no; I’m supervising here.

    Adapted from:

    Levinson 1983 335

  • Source

    Levinson 1983 334–335

    What is accusative case?

    Definition

    Accusative case is the case in nominative-accusative languages that marks certain syntactic functions, usually direct objects .

    Generic
    Accusative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 3, 156

    Crystal 1980 11, 246

    Andrews, A. 1985 75

    Anderson, S. 1985 181

    Mish 1991 50

    What is acoustic phonetics?

    Introduction

    Acoustic phonetics is a technical area of linguistics. Phoneticians depict and analyze sound waves using machines and computer programs.

    Definition

    Acoustic phonetics is the study of sound waves made by the human vocal organs for communication.

    Source

    Ladefoged 1993 186–187, 192

    What is active voice?

    Definition

    Active voice is a voice that indicates a subject has the semantic function of actor.

    Example (English)
  • The following sentence construction is in active voice. The subject Jones has the semantic function of actor.

  • Jones built the house.
  • The above active construction contrasts with the following construction in passive voice , where Jones has the semantic function of actor but house is the subject:

  • The house was built by Jones.
  • Generic
    Active voice is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 12

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 6

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 251–252

    Nida 1949 168

    Mish 1991 54

    What is an actual implicature?

    Definition

    An actual implicature is any potential implicature that is not canceled by its context.

    Example (English)
  • The expression I think that some went has two potential implicatures:

    • The matrix sentence I think ... has the potential implicature "I don’t know [that some went]."
    • The complement clause ... some went has the potential implicature "not all went."

    Of the two potential implicatures, only I don’t know that some went is an actual implicature, because the other occurs in a complement clause that the matrix clause does not entail. If some went were uttered independently, as a main clause , its potential implicature ‘not all went’ would also be its actual implicature.

    Adapted from:

    Levinson 1983 134

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of actual implicatures:
    Generic
    An actual implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 133–134

    Gazdar 1979 55

    What is an actual presupposition?

    Definition

    An actual presupposition is any potential presupposition that is not canceled by its context.

    Example (English)
  • The utterance John says that the king of France is bald has two potential presuppositions:

    • There is someone identified as John.
    • There is a king of France.

    Of these two, only the presupposition that there is someone identified as John is an actual presupposition, because the second presupposition is reported.

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of actual presuppositions:
    Generic
    An actual presupposition is a kind of
    Source

    Gazdar 1979 124

    What is an additive relation?

    Definition

    An additive relation is an interpropositional relation in which the propositions are judged either to be closely related or built one on another.

    Examples (English)
    • and

      Example:

      Peter didn’t show up; and how about you?

    • further
    • moreover
    • also

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 246 believe that the words further, moreover, and also additionally indicate emphasis.

    Kind
    Here is a kind of additive relation:
    Generic
    An additive relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 :200

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 :234–236

    van Dijk 1981 :167

    What is an addressee?

    Definition

    An addressee is any of the immediate intended recipients of the speaker 's communication, as grammaticalized in second person morphemes .

    Generic
    An addressee is a kind of
    Sources

    Fillmore 1975: 40

    Levinson 1983: 72

    What is an addressee honorific?

    Definition

    An addressee honorific is an honorific in a system in which a level of status of the addressee relative to the speaker is expressed through a choice made among linguistic alternants, irrespective of whether the alternants refer to the addressee.

    Examples (Javanese)
  • In Javanese, the following alternants all mean ‘house’:

    • omah
    • grija
    • dalem

    Each form in the list successively expresses a higher status of the person spoken to.

    Source:

    Geertz 1960 248

  • Generic
    An addressee honorific is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983: 90

    Comrie 1976a

    Geertz 1960 248

    What is an adjacency pair?

    Definition

    An adjacency pair is a unit of conversation that contains an exchange of one turn each by two speakers. The turns are functionally related to each other in such a fashion that the first turn requires a certain type or range of types of second turn.

    Examples
    • A greeting–greeting pair
    • A question–answer pair
    Generic
    An adjacency pair is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 303–304

    Crystal 1987 415

    What is an adjective?

    Definition

    An adjective is a word that belongs to a class whose members modify nouns. An adjective specifies the properties or attributes of a noun referent .

    Discussion

    Some languages have no formally distinct category of adjectives. In such languages, property concepts are expressed as either nouns or verbs.

    An adjective generally

    • occurs in a noun phrase or as a stative predicate
    • may be intensified, and
    • may take comparative and superlative degrees.
    Examples (English)
    • That cat is big.
    • We will not drive the old car.
    • I am very encouraged!
    • She is more agile than you.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of adjectives:
    Generic
    An adjective is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 14

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 5

    Mish 1991 56

    What is an adjunct?

    Definition

    An adjunct, broadly defined, is an optional constituent of a construction .

    Discussion

    This term is likely to be used by various authors in a variety of restricted senses.

    Kind
    Here is a kind of adjunct:
    Generic
    An adjunct is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 8

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 5

    Andrews, A. 1985 89

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 5

    What is an adposition?

    Definition

    An adposition is a cover term for prepositions and postpositions. It is a member of a closed set of items that

    • occur before or after a complement composed of a noun phrase, noun, pronoun, or clause that functions as a noun phrase, and
    • form a single structure with the complement to express its grammatical and semantic relation to another unit within a clause.
    Examples (English)
    • He went to the races.
    • He promised to help with whatever was the matter.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of adpositions:
    Generic
    An adposition is a kind of
    Sources

    Comrie 1989 91

    Crystal 1980 277, 282

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 181–183

    Mish 1991 929

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 657–659

    What is an adpositional phrase?

    Definition

    An adpositional phrase is a phrase that has an adposition as its head.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of adpositional phrases:
    Generic
    An adpositional phrase is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1989 91, 98

    What is advanced tongue root?

    Definition

    Advanced tongue root refers to the features of a sound made by drawing the root of the tongue forward. This feature distinguishes between tense vowels as [+ ATR] and lax vowels as [- ATR] ( Burquest and Payne 1993 18 ).

    See also
    • Options for symbolizing vowel harmony

    What is an adverb? (Linguistics)

    Definition

    Here are two senses for adverb:

    1. An adverb, narrowly defined, is a word belonging to a class of words which modify verbs for such categories as

      • time
      • manner
      • place, or
      • direction.
    2. An adverb, broadly defined, is a word belonging to a class of words which modify any constituent class of words other than nouns , such as

      • verbs
      • adjectives
      • adverbs
      • phrases
      • clauses, or
      • sentences.

      Under this definition, the possible type of modification depends on the class of the constituent being modified.

    Discussion

    The general class adverb is a mixture of very different kinds of words, which cover a wide range of semantic concepts and whose syntactic distribution is disparate. The definition of the lexical category adverb is language-specific, based on syntactic distribution.

    Many words traditionally called adverbs in English, such as degree words (very, awfully) and negatives (not), are set up as distinct word-classes in linguistic studies.

    Examples (English)
    • He went fast.
    • She slowly shut the door.
    • Nearly in a rage, he left.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of adverbs:
    Generic
    An adverb is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 17

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 6

    Schachter 1985 20

    Mish 1991 59

    What is an adverb? (Grammar)

    Definition

    An adverb is a lexical category whose members have the same syntactic distribution and typically modify adjectives , other adverbs, verbs , or whole clauses or sentences.

    Discussion

    The general class adverb is a mixture of very different kinds of words, which cover a wide range of semantic concepts and whose syntactic distribution is disparate. The definition of the lexical category adverb is language-specific, based on syntactic distribution.

    Tip:

    Any word with lexical content that does not clearly fit the categories noun, verb, or adjective is usually considered an adverb.

    Examples (English)

    True adverbs in English are words that can be modified by degree words such as the following:

    • possibly
    • quickly
    • well
    • far
    Nonexamples (English)

    Many words traditionally called adverbs in English are not in the same lexical category as true adverbs because they do not have the same syntactic distribution as true adverbs and cannot be modified by degree words.

    • very
    • not
    • here
    • there
    • now
    • then
    • yesterday
    Syntactic distribution of adverbs

    The following categories are not adverbs in English because they do not have the same syntactic distribution as true adverbs:

    • Degree words

      In the following sentences smoothly, a true adverb, and very, a degree word, do not have the same syntactic distribution:

      • She ran very smoothly.
      • *She ran smoothly very.
      • *She ran quickly smoothly.
    • Negation words

      In the following sentences quickly, a true adverb, and not, a negation word, do not have the same syntactic distribution:

      • She quickly shut the door again.
      • *She not shut the door again.
      • Run quickly around the bases.
      • ?Run not around the bases.

    What is an adverbial clause?

    Definition

    An adverbial clause is a clause that has an adverb -like function in modifying another clause.

    Discussion

    An adverbial clause is likely to be distinct in its syntax or verb morphology.

    Example (English)
  • He kept quiet in order to avoid trouble.
  • Generic
    An adverbial clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 6

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 7

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 171–172, 177

    Crystal 1980 61

    What is an adverbializer?

    Definition

    An adverbializer is a subordinating conjunction that

    Discussion

    In some languages, an adverbializer

    Examples (English)
    • when
    • after
    • if … [then]
    Generic
    An adverbializer is a kind of
    Source

    Schachter 1985 51–52

    What is an affix? (Linguistics)

    Definition

    An affix is a bound morpheme that is joined before, after, or within a root or stem .

    Discussion

    An affix is joined by derivation or inflection .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of affixes:
    Comparison of kinds of affixes

    Here is a table showing some kinds of affixes with examples:

    Affix

    Relationship to root or stem

    Example

    prefix

    Occurs in the front of a root or stem

    un happy

    suffix

    Occurs at the end of a root or stem

    happi ness

    infix

    Occurs inside of a root or stem

    b um ili 'buy' (Tagalog, Philippines)

    circumfix

    Occurs in two parts on both outer edges of a root or stem

    ka baddang an 'help' (Tuwali Ifugao, Philippines)

    simulfix

    Replaces one or more phonemes in the root or stem

    m a n + plural > m e n

    suprafix

    Superimposed on one or more syllables in the root or stem as a suprasegmental

    stress in the words 'produce, n. and pro'duce, v.

    Generic
    An affix is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 17

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 6

    Mish 1991 62

    What is an affix? (Grammar)

    Definition

    An affix is a bound morpheme which adds lexical or syntactic information to a root or stem.

    Kinds

    Some languages have zero affixes , whereby meaning is conveyed by the absence of an affix.

    Compare and contrast: Affix and root or stem

    Here is a table that compares and contrasts affixes and roots or stems:

    Affixes

    Roots or Stems

    Usually have grammatical meaning (but derivational affixes may have lexical meaning).

    Usually have lexical meaning.

    Are usually members of closed syntactic classes.

    Are usually members of open syntactic classes.

    Are always bound .

    May be bound or free .

    What is affixation?

    Definition

    Affixation is the morphological process whereby an affix is attached to a root or stem .

    Example (English)
  • In English, the plural morpheme suffix is added to job, rat, and kiss to form the following forms:

    • jobs
    • rats
    • kisses
  • Generic
    Affixation is a kind of
    Source

    Matthews 1991 131

    What is agent as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Agent is the semantic role of a person or thing who is the doer of an event.

    Discussion

    An agent is usually the grammatical subject of the verb in an active clause. A prototypical agent is conscious, acts with volition (on purpose), and performs an action that has a physical, visible effect.

    Examples (English)
    • The boy ran down the street.
    • He was chased by the dog.
    Generic
    Agent is a kind of
    See also
    See the following to contrast agent with force:
    Sources

    Larson 1984 199–203

    Longacre 1983 156–157

    What is an agglutinative language?

    Definition

    An agglutinative language is a language in which words are made up of a linear sequence of distinct morphemes and each component of meaning is represented by its own morpheme.

    Example: Chukchi (Northeastern Siberia)

    t*E -meyN*E -levt*E -p*E*ft -*Erk*En

    1 Sg -great -head -ache -Imperfective

    I have a fierce headache.

    This example consists of one word made up of five morphemes.

    Source:

    Bickford and Daly 1996 :Chap. F-3, page 6

    Contrast

    The opposite of a highly agglutinative language is a highly fusional language.

    What is agreement?

    Definition

    Agreement refers to a formal relationship between elements whereby a form of one word requires a corresponding form of another.

    Also known as:

    concord

    Example (Latin)
  • In Latin, nouns and their adjectives must correspond to one another in number , gender and case .
  • Source

    Crystal 1991 13, 71

    What is alethic modality?

    Definition

    Alethic modality is modality that connotes the speaker’s estimation of the logical necessity or possibility of the proposition expressed by his utterance .

    Discussion

    The adjective alethic is also used in expressions of specific degrees of alethic modality, such as

    • alethic possibility, or
    • alethic necessity.
    Example (English)
  • Alfred is a bachelor; thus he must be unmarried.

    Adapted from:

    Lyons 1977b 788

  • Generic
    Alethic modality is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 12

    Palmer 1986 10–11

    Lyons 1977b 788–791

    What is an alienable noun?

    Definition

    An alienable noun is a noun that

    • refers to something viewed as not permanently or necessarily possessed, and
    • is thus not obligatorily expressed as possessed in a language that also has inalienable nouns .
    Generic
    An alienable noun is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 20

    McKaughan and Loving 1973 31

    What is allative case?

    Definition

    Allative case is a case that expresses motion to or toward the referent of the noun it marks.

    Discussion

    The term allative case has been used in studies of Finnish and Eskimo. Its synonym additive case has been used especially in studies of Basque.

    Generic
    Allative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 6, 9, 216

    Lyons 1968 299

    Crystal 1985 12–13

    Gove 1966 55, 2359

    What is an allegory?

    Definition

    An allegory is an extended metaphor, especially a story in which fictional characters and actions are used to understand and express aspects of concepts relating to human existence.

    Kind
    Here is a kind of allegory:
    Generic
    An allegory is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 479

    Mish 1991 71

    What is an allomorph?

    Definition

    An allomorph is one of two or more complementary morphs which manifest a morpheme in its different phonological or morphological environments.

    Discussion

    The allomorphs of a morpheme are derived from phonological rules and any morphophonemic rules that may apply to that morpheme.

    Examples (English)

    The plural morpheme in English, usually written as '-s', has at least three allomorphs:

    • [-s] as in [hQts] 'hats'
    • [-z] as in [d&u0254gz] 'dogs'
    • [«z] as in [bŒks«z] 'boxes'
    Generic
    An allomorph is a kind of
    See also
    • Comparison of morpheme-morph-allomorph and phoneme-phone-allophone

    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 10

    Crystal 1985 13

    Payne, T. 1997a :23

    What is an allophone?

    Definition

    An allophone is a phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language.

    Examples (English)
    • [p] and [pH] are allophones of the phoneme /p/.
    • [t] and [tH] are allophones of the phoneme /t/.
    Examples (Spanish)
    • [b] and [B] are allophones of the phoneme /b/.
    • [d] and [D] are allophones of the phoneme /d/.
    See also

    What is an alternative question?

    Definition

    An alternative question is a question that presents two or more possible answers and presupposes that only one is true.

    Example (English)
  • Would you like chocolate, vanilla, or strawberry ice cream?

    Source:

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 823

  • Generic
    An alternative question is a kind of
    Source

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 823–824

    What is an alternative relation?

    Definition

    An alternative relation is an interpropositional relation in which at least one of the connected propositions is held to be true, but not necessarily, or perhaps not even possibly, all of them.

    Examples (English)
    • or
    • alternatively
    • on the other hand (some uses)
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of alternative relations:
    Generic
    An alternative relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 83–84

    Longacre 1983 :91

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 :246–247

    What is an ambiguous consonant sequence?

    Definition

    An ambiguous consonant sequence is a phonetic string (segment or sequence) that may be interpreted as

    • a single consonant, or
    • two successive consonants.
    Kinds

    Here is a table of some kinds of ambiguous consonant sequences with an example of each:

    Ambiguous consonant sequence

    Example

    Affricate

    [tƒS]

    Complex consonants
    • Labiovelar
    • Alveopalatal
    • Voiceless sonorant
    • Retroflexed consonant
    • [ã]
    • [þ]
    • [l¥]
    • [}]
    Modified consonants
    • Labialized
    • Palatalized
    • Velarized
    • Aspirated
    • Prenasalized
    • Postnasalized
    • Glottalized
    • [kW]
    • [tJ]
    • [lì]
    • [kH]
    • [<k]
    • [b<]
    • [t?]

    What is an ambiguous phonetic transition?

    Definition

    An ambiguous phonetic transition is a phonetic segment, found between two distinct segments, that may serve only a connective function phonetically and may, therefore, not be a phonologically distinct segment.

    Kinds

    Here are some kinds of ambiguous phonetic transitions with an example of each:

    Ambiguous phonetic transition

    Example

    Transition glide before or after non-open vowels

    [iJa]

    Transition vowel

    [m « n]

    Voicing transition

    [s z a]

    What is an ambiguous segment?

    Definition

    An ambiguous segment is a phone that may or may not function as the nucleus of a syllable .

    Discussion

    An ambiguous segment may also be described as functioning as either a vowel or a consonant, depending on its position in a syllable.

    Examples

    Here is a table that gives a description of some kinds of ambiguous segments with examples of each:

    Ambiguous segment

    Examples

    Intervocalic glides and close vowels

    [i], [u], [j], [w]

    Mid vowels (if there are no corresponding close vowels found in the same context)

    [e], [o]

    Voiceless segments

    [h], [Q8], [E8]

    Nasals/nasalized segments

    [n], [n`], [®â]

    Liquids

    [l], [l`]

    Velar and bilabial voiced fricatives

    [Ä] (which may correspond to [&u0268]); [B] (which may correspond to [u])

    Retroflexed vowels and approximates

    [eÕ], [&u0279]

    Nonexamples (Close vowels in certain environments)
  • Close vowels (for example, [i] and [w]) are not usually considered ambiguous in the following environments:

    • Between two consonants
    • Between a consonant and a word boundary
    • When they are stressed
    • When they bear tone
  • What is an ambiguous sequence?

    Definition

    An ambiguous sequence is a phonetic string, a segment or sequence, that may function as

    • two phonological units, or
    • a single unit.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of ambiguous sequences:
    Source

    Burquest and Payne 1993

    What is an ambiguous vowel sequence?

    Definition

    An ambiguous vowel sequence is a phonetic string (segment or sequence) that may be interpreted as a

    • diphthong
    • two separate vowels, or
    • a vowel and a consonant.
    Kinds

    Here are some kinds of ambiguous vowels sequences with an example of each:

    Ambiguous vowel sequence

    Example

    Vocalic sequence in which one member is close

    [ai]

    Complex vowel

    [y]

    Modified vowels
    • Nasalized
    • Retroflexed
    • Breathy
    • Laryngealized (creaky)
    • [e)]
    • [eÕ]
    • [e-]
    • [e0]

    What is the Americanist system?

    Definition

    The Americanist system is a phonetic alphabet designed by Kenneth L. Pike and Eunice Pike after the model of Edward Sapir and Morris Swadesh.

    Also known as:
    • SIL phonetic alphabet
    • Pike system
    Source

    Pike 1947

    What is an amplification relation?

    Definition

    An amplification relation is an elaboration relation in which a proposition substantially repeats the content of an earlier one and adds further information.

    Example (English)
  • He went away; I saw him go away.

    Source:

    Longacre 1983 120

  • Generic
    An amplification relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1983 119–120

    Beekman and Callow 1974 298–300

    What is an analytic definition?

    Definition

    An analytic definition is a description of the range of reference of a lexical unit . This description is made up of a

    • generic term identifying the broad category to which it belongs, and
    • modifying word or phrase which specifies its obligatory components of meaning, thus

      • restricting it to include only the appropriate referents , and
      • distinguishing it from similar senses and words.
    Discussion

    The obligatory components that are specified in an analytic definition are also referred to as core, central, criterial, or diagnostic by semanticists and lexicographers.

    Examples
    • doctor —"a person licensed to practice medicine"
    • eat— "to take into the body, through the mouth, something which may be thought of as food"
    Nonexamples
    • doctor— "physician; surgeon"
    • eat —"consume; devour"

    Defining a lexical unit using a synonym or generic term alone is not sufficient to distinguish it from similar words.

    What is anaphora?

    Definition

    Anaphora is coreference of one expression with its antecedent . The antecedent provides the information necessary for the expression’s interpretation.

    This is often understood as an expression “referring” back to the antecedent.

    Discussion

    The term anaphora is also sometimes used to include both anaphora, as defined here, and cataphora . When it is used that way, it becomes synonymous with endophora .

    Example (English)
  • In the following sequence, the relationship of the pronoun he to the noun phrase a well-dressed man is an example of anaphora:

  • A well-dressed man was speaking; he had a foreign accent.
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of anaphora:
    Generic
    Anaphora is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 25–26

    Lyons 1977b 659

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 13

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 13

    Mish 1991 83

    What is an anaphoric clitic?

    Definition

    An anaphoric clitic is a morphologically bound morpheme that

    • refers to a previously mentioned constituent, and
    • fills the position of a noun phrase in a clause and is in complementary distribution with full noun phrases.
    Examples (Yagua, Peru)

    The anaphoric clitic sa- is a bound morpheme that can only appear immediately before the verb stem. It is in complementary distribution with noun phrases.

    • sa - mura7@a7@y

      3SG-sing

    • manungo mura7@a7@y

      Manungo sings

    • *manungo sa - mura7@a7@y

    Source:

    Payne, T. 1997a 43

    See also

    What is an anchored entity?

    Definition

    An anchored entity is a brand-new entity that is linked to another referent which is not brand new by means of the inclusion of a referring expression in the noun phrase .

    Example (English)
  • In the following expression, guy (brand new) is anchored to the speaker (not brand new) by the phrase I work with:

  • A guy I work with says he knows your sister.
  • Source:

    Prince 1981 233

  • Generic
    An anchored entity is a kind of
    Source

    Prince 1981 233, 236

    What is an animate class?

    Definition

    An animate class is a category of nouns having human or animal referents .

    Discussion

    In some languages, the animate class is a grammaticalized noun class.

    Generic
    An animate class is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 26

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 14

    Mish 1991 87

    What is an antanaclasis?

    Definition

    An antanaclasis is a pun in which a word is repeated with a different meaning each time.

    Example (English)
  • Your argument is sound, nothing but sound.

    (Benjamin Franklin, cited by Corbett 1971 482 )

  • Generic
    An antanaclasis is a kind of
    Source

    Corbett 1971 482

    What is an antecedent?

    Definition

    An antecedent is a word, phrase, or clause referred to endophorically by another expression which precedes or follows it.

    Examples (English)
    • In the following construction, the boy is the antecedent of who:

    • The boy who pitched the game is worn out.
    • In the following construction, a towel is the antecedent of one:

    • If you need one, there’s a towel in the top drawer.
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 17

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 14

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 15

    Mish 1991 89

    What is anthimeria?

    Definition

    Anthimeria is the use of a member of one word class as if it were a member of another, thus altering its meaning.

    Example (English)
  • In the following example, unhair is an example of anthimeria. Although hair is normally used as a noun, in this instance it takes an -un prefix and is used as a verb :

  • “I’ll unhair thy head.”

    (Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, II, v, 64, cited by Corbett 1971 484 )

  • Generic
    An anthimeria is a kind of
    Source

    Corbett 1971 484

    What is an anthology?

    Definition

    An anthology is a collection of of poems, stories, songs, articles, or other literary passages chosen by a compiler.

    What is an anticipatory illocution?

    Definition

    An anticipatory illocution is an illocutionary act that has the direct illocutionary force of a question about the conditions necessary for the appropriateness of some other illocutionary act. The anticipatory illocution thus has the indirect illocutionary force of the latter.

    Example (English)
  • Would you like some more coffee?

    This illocutionary act has the direct force of a question about a condition for the appropriateness of offering coffee. However, the speaker believes that if the addressee would like some coffee, then an offer of coffee will be accepted. Thus, the question has the indirect force of an offer of coffee.

    Source:

    Leech 1983 98

  • Generic
    An anticipatory illocution is a kind of
    Source

    Leech 1983 97–98

    What is antipassive voice?

    Definition

    Antipassive voice is a voice in an ergative-absolutive language in which

    Discussion

    Antipassive is a kind of valency decreasing operation that results in a very intransitive-like verb. The verb takes on the formal characteristics of intransitive verbs in that language.

    Generic
    Antipassive voice is a kind of
    Sources

    Givón 1984 108, 161, 417

    Payne, T. 1997a 219

    What is an antithesis relation?

    Definition

    An antithesis relation is a contrast relation in which

    • the contrasted propositions express events or states that are incompatible with each other, and
    • the speaker communicates positive regard (belief or preference) for one or the other.
    Examples (English)
    Kind
    Here is a kind of antithesis relation:
    Generic
    An antithesis relation is a kind of
    Source

    Mann and Thompson 1987a 8–9, 16

    What is antonomasia?

    Definition

    Antonomasia is

    • the use of a proper name to stand for something else having an attribute associated with that name, or
    • the use of a general term to stand for a referent having a proper name.
    Examples (English)
    • The use of a Solomon to stand for "a wise man"
    • The use of Land of Lakes to stand for "Minnesota"
    Generic
    Antonomasia is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 15

    Corbett 1971 485

    Gove 1966 97

    What is an apostrophe?

    Definition

    An apostrophe is an address to

    • an absent person, or
    • a personified abstraction or thing.
    Example (English)
  • O eloquent, just, and mighty Death!

    (Sir Walter Raleigh’s History of the World, cited by Corbett 1971 486 )

  • Sources

    Corbett 1971 486

    Mish 1991 96

    What is an apposition?

    Definition

    An apposition is a construction consisting of two or more adjacent units that have identical referents .

    Examples (English)
    • My friend John
    • This excuse, that you didn’t get the word, is a poor one
    Generic
    An apposition is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 17

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 16

    Crystal 1985 20

    Mish 1991 97

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1260, 1300–1301

    What is an article?

    Definition

    An article is a member of a small class of determiners that identify a noun 's

    Examples (English)
    • The definite article the
    • The indefinite article a/an
    Generic
    An article is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 32

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 18

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 18

    Mish 1991 105

    What is an articulation process?

    Definition

    The articulation process is the modification of sound waves produced by the airstream, phonation, and oral-nasal processes.

    What is an ascertainment relation?

    Definition

    An ascertainment relation is an internal alternative relation in which a following proposition presents an alternative circumstance where a preparatory condition, of the illocutionary act that includes the previous proposition, is not met. The alternative is presented to make a query about the defectiveness or nondefectiveness of the illocutionary act.

    Examples (English)
    • Do you want a sandwich? Or, aren’t you hungry?
    • Congratulations with your new car. Or, aren’t you happy with it?
    • Shut up! Or, don’t you see I’m busy?
    Source:

    Dijk 1981 170

    Generic
    An ascertainment relation is a kind of
    Source

    Dijk 1981 170–171

    What is aspect?

    Definition

    Aspect is a grammatical category associated with verbs that expresses a temporal view of the event or state expressed by the verb.

    Discussion

    Aspect is often indicated by verbal affixes or auxiliary verbs .

    Example (English)
  • He is talking.
  • The be + -ing construction expresses progressive aspect.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of aspect:
    Generic
    Aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Lyons 1977b 705

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 213

    Talmy 1985 77

    Elson and Pickett 1988 26–27

    Comrie 1976a 3

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 188

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 20

    Crystal 1987 415

    Mish 1991 108

    What is an assertive illocutionary point?

    Definition

    An assertive illocutionary point is an illocutionary point in which the speaker purposes to present that the state of affairs described by the propositional content of the utterance is actual.

    Generic
    An assertive illocutionary point is a kind of
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 38

    What is assumptive mood?

    Definition

    Assumptive mood is an epistemic mode that signals the speaker's belief that his statement is based on facts about what is usually the case in such circumstances.

    Examples (English)
  • The word will ( ’ll ) in the following constructions indicates assumptive mood:

    • They’ll be on holiday at the moment.
    • That’ll be the postman.
  • Source:

    Palmer 1986 62

    Generic
    Assumptive mood is a kind of
    Source

    Palmer 1986 61–62

    What is an attraction schema?

    Definition

    An attraction schema is a force schema in which an object exerts a force on another object, either physically or metaphorically, to pull it toward itself.

    Examples (English)
    Physical
    • Magnetism
    • Vacuum cleaner
    • Gravity
    Metaphorical
    • Romance
    • Desire
    Generic
    An attraction schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 47–48

    What is attributable silence?

    Definition

    Attributable silence is conversational silence between turns that is assignable to a particular participant due to his having been selected by the previous speaker to speak next.

    Generic
    Attributable silence is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 299–300

    What is an attribution relation?

    Definition

    An attribution relation is an elaboration relation in which a proposition describes an attribute of a referent of another proposition.

    Example (English)
  • A tall man came by; he was wearing an old navy jacket.
  • Generic
    An attribution relation is a kind of
    Source

    Dijk 1981 272

    What is an audience?

    Definition

    An audience is one or more persons who are part of the conversational group but who are not presently being addressed .

    Generic
    An audience is a kind of
    Sources

    Fillmore 1975 40

    Levinson 1983 72

    What is an auditory evidential?

    Definition

    An auditory evidential is a nonvisual evidential that signals that the speaker 's evidence for the truth of his statement is based on what he has heard.

    Generic
    An auditory evidential is a kind of
    Source

    Oswalt 1986 37

    What is an authorized recipient?

    Definition

    An authorized recipient is an addressee , having a unique status or belonging to a socially defined group, with whom one or more distinctive linguistic forms is used.

    Discussion

    The use of distinctive linguistic forms for an authorized recipient expresses absolute social deixis .

    Examples (English, Tunica)
  • An authorized recipient would be the appropriate person to receive a term of address such as Your Honor or Mr. President.

    Source:

    Levinson 1979 207

  • Here is an example in Tunica of an authorized recipient:

  • In Tunica, there are two different words for they which are dependent upon the sex of the addressee.
  • ( Haas 1964 cited by Levinson 1979 207 )
  • Sources

    Levinson 1979 207

    Haas 1964

    What is an authorized speaker?

    Definition

    An authorized speaker is a speaker that belongs to a socially defined group for whom the use of a distinctive class of linguistic forms is reserved.

    Discussion

    The use of distinctive linguistic forms expresses the absolute social deixis of the speaker’s membership in the group.

    Example (Thai)
  • Thai men and women each use a different politeness particle when speaking.
  • ( Haas 1964 cited by Levinson 1979 207 )
  • Sources

    Levinson 1979 207

    Haas 1964

    What is autosegmental phonology?

    Definition

    Autosegmental phonology is a non-linear approach to phonology that allows phonological processes, such as tone and vowel harmony, to be independent of and extend beyond individual consonants and vowels.

    As a result, the phonological processes may influence more than one vowel or consonant at a time.

    Multi-dimensional representations

    Autosegmental phonology treats phonological representations as multi-dimensional, having several tiers. Each tier is made up of a linear arrangement of segments. The tiers are linked to each other by association lines that indicate how the segments on each tier are to be pronounced at the same time.

    Examples (Mende, Sierra Leone)
  • In an autosegmental analysis of Mende, tone is not a property of individual vowels or syllables , but is a property of the word as a whole.
  • In the examples in the following table, the tone given in the left most column is the tone specified for all the words in that row, regardless of how many syllables a word contains.

    Tone

    1 syllable

    2 syllables

    3 syllables

    H

    nda@ ‘mouth’

    ngu@lu@ ‘tree’

    kE@lE@lE@ ‘fraction’

    L

    kpa$ ‘debt’

    be$le$ ‘trousers’

    kpa$ka$l"Ý ‘chair’

    HL

    mbu^ ‘owl’

    ke@nya$ ‘uncle’

    fe@la$ma$ ‘junction’

    LH

    mba& ‘rice’

    na$vo@ ‘money’

    nda$vu@la@ ‘sling’

    LHL

    mba ‘companion’

    nya$ha^ ‘woman’

    n"Ýk"Ûl"Ý ‘peanut’

  • Formal representation

    Here are some examples of formal representations of HL Mende tone:

    See also
    Source

    Goldsmith 1975 135–147

    What is auxesis?

    Definition

    Auxesis is an exaggeration of the importance of a referent by the use of a referring expression that is disproportionate to it.

    Example (English)
  • Referring to a scratch as a wound.
  • Generic
    Auxesis is a kind of
    Source

    Corbett 1971: 487

    What is an auxiliary verb?

    Definition

    An auxiliary verb is a verb which

    Examples (English)
    • can
    • may
    • do
    Generic
    An auxiliary verb is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 326

    Crystal 1980 38–39

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 79–80, 120

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 24

    Mish 1991 118