What is a cardinal numeral?

Definition

A cardinal numeral is a numeral of the class whose members are

  • considered basic in form
  • used in counting, and
  • used in expressing how many objects are referred to.
Examples (English)
  • one
  • two
  • twenty
  • one hundred
Generic
A cardinal numeral is a kind of
Sources

Crystal 1980 52

Crystal 1987 416

Mish 1991 207

What is case?

Definition

Case is a grammatical category determined by the syntactic or semantic function of a noun or pronoun .

Discussion

The term case has traditionally been restricted to apply to only those languages which indicate certain functions by the inflection of

  • nouns
  • pronouns, or
  • noun phrase constituents , such as adjectives and numerals.
Example:

The Latin sentences Canis hominem mordet ‘Dog bites man’ and Canem homo mordet ‘Man bites dog’, illustrate that differing case endings express the differing functions of the nouns in Latin.

The term is sometimes extended to include such functions expressed by adpositions .

Example (Japanese)
  • In the following sentence, case is indicated by the case markers ga, ni, and o:

    John ga Mary ni hon o yatta
    John NOMINATIVE Mary DATIVE book ACCUSATIVE gave
    ‘John gave Mary a book.’
    Source:

    Kuno 1973 4–5

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of cases:
    Generic
    Case is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 35

    Crystal 1980 53–54

    Anderson, S. 1985 179–180

    Andrews, A. 1985 71–72

    Mish 1991 211

    Kuno 1973 4–5

    What is cataphora?

    Definition

    Cataphora is the coreference of one expression with another expression which follows it. The following expression provides the information necessary for interpretation of the preceding one.

    This is often understood as an expression “referring” forward to another expression.

    Example (English)
  • In the following sentence, the relationship of one to a towel is an example of cataphora:

  • If you need one, there’s a towel in the top drawer.
  • Generic
    Cataphora is a kind of
    Sources

    Gutwinski 1976 67

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 17

    Crystal 1985 43

    What is a causal relation?

    Definition

    A causal relation is an interpropositional relation in which the situation expressed by some proposition(s) is communicated as bringing about

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of causal relations:
    Generic
    A causal relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1983 106–107

    , Halliday and Hasan 1976 256–258

    Hollenbach 1975 16

    What is a causative?

    Definition

    A causative is a grammatical or lexical indication of the causal role of a referent in relation to an event or state expressed by a verb .

    Discussion

    A causative may be indicated by a

    Examples (English)
    • Herod had John killed.
    • The sun solidified the mixture.
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 44–45

    Elson and Pickett 1988 31

    Faust 1973 70

    What is causative case?

    Definition

    Causative case is a case which expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the cause of the situation expressed by the clause .

    Generic
    Causative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 36

    Andrews, A. 1985 95

    Gove 1966 356

    What is causer as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Causer is the semantic role of the referent which instigates an event rather than actually doing it.

    Discussion

    The causer is usually the surface subject of the verb in a sentence.

    Example (English)
  • Peter tripped John.
  • Generic
    A causer is a kind of
    Source

    Larson 1984 199–203

    What is a center-periphery schema?

    Definition

    A center–periphery schema is an image schema involving

    • a physical or metaphorical core and edge, and
    • degrees of distance from the core.
    Examples (English)
    • The structure of an apple
    • An individual’s perceptual sphere
    • An individual’s social sphere, with family and friends at the core and others having degrees of peripherality
    Generic
    A center–periphery schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 124–125

    What is a centrifugal?

    Definition

    A centrifugal is an expression of place deixis that has a component of meaning indicating movement away from a deictic center .

    Generic
    A centrifugal is a kind of
    Source

    Heath 1980 153

    What is a centripetal?

    Definition

    A centripetal is an expression of place deixis which has a component of meaning indicating movement toward a deictic center .

    Example (Archaic English)
  • The word hither indicates movement toward the speaker.
  • Generic
    A centripetal is a kind of
    Source

    Heath 1980 152

    What is cessative aspect?

    Definition

    Cessative aspect is aspect that expresses the cessation of an event or state.

    Generic
    Cessative aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 37

    Nida 1949 168

    Elson and Pickett 1988 28

    Anderson, Judi 1989 12

    What is a chain of illocutionary commitments?

    Definition

    A chain of illocutionary commitments is a set of illocutionary acts which are ordered by the relationship of commitment between acts.

    Example (English)
  • Swearing commits one to asserting, which in turn commits one to suggesting.
  • Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 84

    What is a circular definition?

    Definition

    A circular definition is a description of the meaning of a lexeme that is constructed using one or more synonymous lexemes that are all defined in terms of each other.

    Example (lexemes)
    • fast —adj. 'swift; quick; speedy'
    • swift —adj. 'rapid; fast'

    Here is how the circularity can be resolved by the addition of an analytic definition and supplemental information :

    • fast —adj. 'rapid in movement or action, often referring to the person or thing that moves; swift; quick; speedy'
    • swift —adj. 'moving or capable of moving with great speed, often in a smooth and easy manner; rapid; fast'
    Source:

    Neufeldt 1991 493, 1353

    What is a circumfix?

    Definition

    A circumfix is an affix made up of two separate parts which surround and attach to a root or stem .

    The morphological process whereby this is achieved is called circumfixation.

    Example (Tuwali Ifugao, Philippines)

    The circumfix ka--an is a nominalizer and surrounds a root.

  • baddang : root ‘help’ v.
  • ka--an : circumfix ‘NOMR’
  • kabaddangan : word ‘helpfulness’
  • Generic
    A circumfix is a kind of

    What is circumfixation?

    Definition

    Circumfixation is a morphological process whereby an affix made up of two separate parts surrounds and attaches to a root or stem .

    Generic
    A circumfixation is a kind of

    What is a classifier?

    Definition

    A classifier is a word or affix that expresses the classification of a noun .

    Examples (Spanish)
  • In Spanish, the affixes -a and -o classify nouns according to feminine or masculine gender , respectively. Here are some examples of nouns they classify:

    • mesa ‘table’
    • arco ‘arch’
  • Generic
    A classifier is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 61

    Mish 1991 246

    What is a clausal implicature?

    Definition

    A clausal implicature is a quantity implicature which is inferred by an addressee concerning the truth of a proposition expressed in a particular subordinate or coordinate clause . The addressee infers that the proposition may or may not be true.

    The complex or compound sentence of which the clause is a part does not indicate whether the proposition expressed by the clause is true or false.

    Discussion

    There will be another sentence available which would entail that the proposition expressed by the clause is true. This sentence must be identical to the sentence under scrutiny except that, in one of its clauses, an expression has been substituted which is stronger than that used by the speaker.

    Example (English)
  • The sentence I believe that John is away implies that it is possible that John is in fact not away.
  • If John were certain to be away, then the expression would have been something like I know John is away.

    Source:

    Levinson 1983 137

    Generic
    A clausal implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 136–137

    Gazdar 1979 57, 59–62

    What is a clause?

    Definition

    A clause is a grammatical unit that

    Examples (English)
  • The following example sentence contains two clauses:

  • It is cold, although the sun is shining.
  • The main clause is it is cold and the subordinate clause is although the sun is shining.

    Source:

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 137

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of clauses:
    Generic
    A clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 61–62

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 37

    Pike and Pike 1982 438

    Mish 1991 246

    What is a clause chain?

    Definition

    A clause chain is a group of clauses in which

    • one clause, typically the final clause, is distinguished from the other clauses, typically medial clauses , by a difference of verb morphology, and
    • each medial clause is marked to show whether or not its subject is the same as the subject of some reference clause . The reference clause may follow it or may be the final clause in the chain.
    Discussion

    Temporal and causal relations between the clauses are typically signaled.

    Generic
    A clause chain is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1985 263–265

    Longacre 1983 299

    What is a cleft sentence?

    Definition

    A cleft sentence is a complex sentence in which a simple sentence is expressed using a main clause and a subordinate clause . In English the prototypical cleft sentence has the following form:

  • it + be + X + subordinate clause
  • X can be a constituent of one of many varieties.

    Discussion

    X and the subordinate clause together carry the same meaning as their corresponding simple sentence . However, the primary focus of the cleft construction is on an element, often marked by intonation, that introduces new information. This element appears either as X or in the subordinate clause.

    Example (English)
  • No, it is his callousness that I shall ignore.
  • Its corresponding simple sentence is No, I shall ignore his callousness. The primary focus of the cleft sentence may be marked by intonation, as in following sentences:

    • No, it is his callousness that I shall ignore.
    • No, it is his callousness that I shall ignore.
    Source:

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1384

    Generic
    A cleft sentence is a kind of
    Kind
    Here is a kind of cleft sentence:
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 63

    Levinson 1983 182–183

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1383–1384

    Sornicola 1988 343–344

    Bromser 1984 327

    Jespersen 1949 147–148

    Delahunty 1984 74–88

    What is a clitic? (Grammar)

    Definition

    A clitic is a morpheme that has syntactic characteristics of a word , but shows evidence of being phonologically bound to another word.

    Features
    • Phonologically bound but syntactically free
    • Function at phrase or clause level
    • Cannot be integrated into standard discourse without being bound to some other form
    • Often have grammatical rather than lexical meaning
    • Belong to closed classes like pronouns, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, and conjunctions
    • Usually attach to the edges of words, outside of derivational and inflectional affixes
    • Often attach to several syntactic categories of words such as head noun, non-head noun, preposition, verb, or adverb
    • Phonologically unstressed
    Discussion

    A clitic may have a nonclitic alternant.

    Examples (English)
    • The contraction of the morpheme is, as in

    • What's going on?
    • The possessive marker 's, as in

    • The man in the black coat's book.
    Kinds

    Here are the two kinds of clitics:

    • proclitic, occurring at the beginning of a morpheme

    • enclitic , occurring at the end of a morpheme

    Note:

    Clitics that occur on the last element of a clause will always cliticize to the end of that element. (See Payne, T. 1997b )

    Generic
    A clitic is a kind of
    Comparison and contrast: clitic versus affix

    Here is a table that compares and contrasts clitics and affixes:

  • Clitic

    Affix

    Functions above the word level syntactically and on the word level phonologically.

    Functions on the word level syntactically and phonologically.

    May attach to words belonging to a variety of syntactic categories.

    Attaches to words belonging to a single syntactic category.

    May attach to words or whole phrases.

    Attaches to single words.

    Occurs at the edge of a word.

    May occur within or at the edges of a word.

  • Sources

    Crystal 1980 64

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 38

    Anderson, S. 1985 158

    Klavans 1982 xi-xiv, 74–76, 83, 93–95, 100–101

    Zwicky 1977 5

    See also

    What is close future tense?

    Definition

    Close future tense is a tense that refers to a time shortly after the moment of utterance .

    Discussion

    Close future tense typically refers to a time within a span ranging through the end of the time culturally defined as "tomorrow."

    Generic
    Close future tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Dahl 1985 121

    Comrie 1985b 94

    What is a closed class?

    Definition

    A closed class is a grammatical class of words with limited membership. These words have primarily grammatical meaning.

    Examples

    What is coding time?

    Definition

    Coding time is the time of

    Discussion

    Coding time may be used as the deictic center for expressions of time deixis .

    Example (English)
  • In the following statement, the coding time is Wednesday, April 1st:

  • This programme is being recorded today, Wednesday April 1st, to be relayed next Thursday.
  • The coding time is also the deictic center for the statement.

    ( Fillmore 1975 44, cited by Levinson 1983 74 )

  • Sources

    Levinson 1983 54,62, 74

    Fillmore 1975 44

    What is collateral information?

    Definition

    Collateral information expresses a nonevent, something that did not or has not yet happened.

    Kinds
    • denial: John did not drown
    • question: will John drown?
    • prediction: John's going to drown
    Source

    Grimes, J. 1975 :64–70

    What is a collective noun?

    Definition

    A collective noun is a noun that refers to a group of entities that may be considered either as individuals or as one larger entity.

    Discussion

    A collective noun may

    Examples (English)
    • Club

      Examples:

      It is a large club.

      They are a large club.

    • Gang

      Examples:

      The gang’s all here.

      The gang are all here.

    Generic
    A collective noun is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 68

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 41

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 41

    Mish 1991 259

    What is a collocate?

    Definition

    Collocates are lexemes that co-occur with each other in natural texts.

    Discussion

    Collocates may be characterized as follows:

    • Syntactically and semantically permissible

      Example:

      'There was green grass growing everywhere.'

    • Syntactically permissible but semantically impermissible (commonly referred to as collocational clashes )

      Example:

      'There were green ideas growing everywhere.'

    • Syntactically impermissible but semantically permissible

      Example:

      'There was green grass grows everywhere.'

    • Syntactically and semantically impermissible

      Example:

      'There was green ideas grows everywhere.'

    Collocates may also be characterized as follows:

    • Syntactically and semantically permissible, but incidental, as in live metaphors

      Example:

      'The barn was painted red like a tomato.'

    • Syntactically and semantically permissible, but fixed in usage, as in dead metaphors

      Example:

      'He turned as red as a beet.'

    What is comitative case?

    Definition

    Comitative case is a case expressing accompaniment.

    It carries the meaning "with" or "accompanied by."

    Generic
    Comitative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Anderson, S. 1985 186

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 42

    Dixon 1972 12

    Gove 1966 455

    What is a command?

    Definition

    Here are two senses for command:

    1. A command is an illocutionary act that has the directive illocutionary point of getting another to do or not to do something.
    2. A command is a syntactic sentence type in a language that is used primarily to express such illocutionary acts, and is described as having imperative form.
    Discussion

    The meaning for the term command does not appear to extend to such utterances as It’s hot in here. This utterance might have the intended perlocutionary effect of getting the addressee to open a window, but it does not have that as a directive illocutionary point.

    Examples (English)
    • Turn off the radio, please.
    • Would you turn off the radio?
    Generic
    A command is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 41

    Crystal 1985 55

    What is a comment?

    Definition

    A comment is the portion of a sentence that provides information about the topic .

    Example (English)
  • In the following sentence, I’d like to test-drive it is the comment:

  • That new Mazda, I’d like to test-drive it.
  • Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 41

    Crystal 1980 69–70

    Andrews, A. 1985 77

    What is a commissive illocutionary point?

    Definition

    A commissive illocutionary point is the illocutionary point of a speaker committing to bring about the state of affairs described in the propositional content of the utterance .

    Discussion

    According to certain analyses, a commissive illocutionary point is one of the five basic purposes that a speaker can have in making an utterance.

    Generic
    A commissive illocutionary point is a kind of
    Sources

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 38–39

    Crystal 1985 57

    What is commissive modality?

    Definition

    Commissive modality is a deontic modality that connotes the speaker 's expressed commitment, as a promise or threat, to bring about the proposition expressed by the utterance .

    Discussion

    If the usage of the term commissive modality is extended beyond solely grammaticalized means of expression, it becomes nearly synonymous with commissive illocutionary point .

    Example (English)
  • All elections shall take place on schedule.
  • This statement is understood as the speaker’s own commitment to avoid delays.

    Generic
    Commissive modality is a kind of
    Source

    Palmer 1986 115–116

    What is commitment between illocutionary acts?

    Definition

    Commitment between illocutionary acts is a condition in which the speaker 's commitment to one illocutionary act necessarily means the commitment to some other illocutionary act, regardless of the context of utterance .

    Examples (English)
    • The performance of an act of demanding commits one to an act of requesting
    • The commitment to a promise commits one to an act of asserting that one is not saying one does not promise
    • The commitment to a conjunctive illocutionary act commits the speaker to each of the elementary illocutionary acts contained within it
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 25, 81, 84

    What is a common noun?

    Definition

    A common noun is a noun that signifies a nonspecific member of a group.

    Source

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 42

    What is a complement?

    Definition 1

    Traditionally, a complement is a constituent of a clause, such as a noun phrase or adjective phrase, that is used to predicate a description of the subject or object of the clause.

    Kinds
    Here are some kindsof complements under this definition:
    Definition 2

    In generative syntax, a complement is a phrasal or clausal category which is selected (subcategorized) by the head of a phrase.

    Discussion

    A selected, or subcategorized, phrase is obligatory, as contrasted with adjuncts , which are optional. For instance, the direct object of a transitive verb is obligatory and therefore a complement, whereas adverbial modifiers are generally optional, and therefore non-complements. However, the distinction is not always clear, particularly for oblique arguments. Neither is the distinction clear in languages in which complements can be freely omitted if they are understood from the context. Omission must be distinguished from pronominalization; pronouns may generally be considered to be complements. However, in some languages pronouns have been grammaticalized as verbal affixes , in which case the question of whether they are complements or not becomes a theory-internal question. (See Baker 1996 , chapter one for discussion of this issue.)

    The complement/ adjunct distinction cross-cuts the core / oblique distinction, since there are obliques which are complements, and other obliques which are adjuncts. Also, while the subject of a clause is often considered a core argument of the verb, it is not normally considered to be a complement. This is because in most (perhaps all) languages, the subject appears to be a clause-level constituent, rather than a constituent of the verb phrase. However, it should be noted that this argument presupposes that the verb and its object belong to the same phrase-level constituent, while the subject is outside that constituent, an analysis which leaves the status of subject and object in VSO languages unclear.

    Examples (English)
    • Robin read the book . (direct object complement of the verb)
    • Robin gave it to me . (indirect object complement of the verb)
    • Erin put it on the shelf . (obligatory locative complement of the verb--one cannot say, *Erin put it. )
    • This problem seems quite difficult . (adjective phrase complement of the verb)
    • They doubted whether it was possible . (sentential complement of the verb)
    • ...under the table (noun phrase complement of a preposition)
    • ...hard to understand (verb phrase complement of an adjective)
    Nonexamples (English)
    • We gave up quickly. ("quickly" is an adjunct modifier of the verb phrase)
    • They'll leave, I suspect. ("I suspect" is a parenthetical modifying the entire clause)
    Generic
    A complement is a kind of
    Sources

    Mish 1990 269

    Crystal 1985 60

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 55, 741–742

    Jackendoff 1977

    Andrews 1985 : 89–92

    What is a complement clause?

    Definition

    A complement clause is a notional sentence or predication that is an argument of a predicate .

    Discussion

    The term complement clause is extended by some analysts to include clauses selected by nouns or adjectives .

    Examples:

    I heard the evidence that he did it.

    I am sure that he did it.

    I am not certain what we did.

    Examples
    • We thought that you were coming.
    • For you to come would be a mistake.
    • I wonder whether you are coming.
    Nonexamples
    • Elsie fled to escape the hurricane. (a purpose clause that is not an argument of a predicate)
    • Milton came on stage juggling balls. (a manner clause that is not an argument of a predicate)
    • The mouse ate the cheese that was laying out. (a relative clause that modifies a noun and is not itself an argument of a predicate)
    • The plumber arrived who we had called earlier. ( who we had called earlier is a relative clause—see the discussion)
    Discussion

    Relative clauses are not complement clauses. Relative clauses modify a noun phrase, whereas complement clauses are arguments which are selected by a verb, noun, or adjective. In some languages, relative clauses have a gap--a missing NP argument--which is understood to refer to the NP that the relative clause modifies. For instance, in "the person that saw you," the subject of the clause "saw you" is missing, but is understood to be "the person" that the NP as a whole refers to. Complement clauses do not usually have such a gap. For instance, in "the fact that he saw you," the clause "he saw you" does not have any missing arguments. This distinction, however, cannot be used in languages in which it is possible to omit the subject or other clausal arguments freely. This distinction is also not useful in languages which have internally headed relative clauses.

    Adverbial clauses are also not complement clauses. Adverbial clauses may modify any verb phrase or sentence, provided they fit semantically, and fill the same role that a purpose, manner, locative or temporal adverb would fill; whereas complement clauses are specifically selected as complements (arguments) by verbs, adjectives or nouns.

    Generic
    A complement clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 60

    Longacre 1985 237

    Noonan 1985 42, 65

    Schachter 1985 50

    What is complementary distribution?

    Definition

    Complementary distribution is the mutually exclusive relationship between two phonetically similar segments . It exists when one segment occurs in an environment where the other segment never occurs.

    Discussion

    The rationale for complementary distribution comes from one of the principles of phonemics:

  • Sounds tend to be modified by their environments.
  • Source:

    Pike 1947 58

  • A phoneme is made up of certain features that are basic to it. When this phoneme occurs in certain phonetic environments, one or more of its features may undergo changes caused by those environments.

    Examples (English)

    The phones [p] and [pH] are in complementary distribution. [pH] occurs syllable-initially in a stressed syllable, but [p] never does, as demonstrated here:

    Phonetic representation

    Gloss

    Underlying representation

    pHEpp«&u0279

    'pepper'

    /pEpp«&u0279/

    spIn

    'spin'

    /spIn/

    Examples: Cashinahua (Brazil/Peru)

    The phones [b] and [B] are in complementary distribution. [b] occurs only at the beginning of words, while [B] occurs between vowels, as demonstrated here:

    Phonetic representation

    Gloss

    Underlying representation

    baka

    ‘fish’

    /baka/

    taBa

    ‘washboard’

    /taba/

    Source:

    Kensinger 1963 cited in Burquest and Payne 1993 30

    What is a complementizer?

    Definition

    A complementizer is a conjunction which marks a complement clause .

    Examples (English)
    • I know that he is here.
    • I refuted the supposition that he is here.
    • I am doubtful that he is here.
    Generic
    A complementizer is a kind of
    Sources

    Schachter 1985 50

    Crystal 1985 60

    What is a complex illocutionary act?

    Definition

    A complex illocutionary act is an illocutionary act that

    • has a negated illocutionary force
    • is performed conditionally, or
    • is conjoined with another illocutionary act
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of complex illocutionary acts:
    Generic
    A complex illocutionary act is a kind of
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 3, 74

    What is a complex sentence?

    Definition

    A complex sentence is a sentence which includes

    Example (English)
  • The man whom you see is my brother.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of complex sentence:
    Generic
    A complex sentence is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 75

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 45

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 719

    Mish 1991 269

    What is a compound?

    Definition

    A compound is a word containing a stem that is made up of more than one root .

    Example (English)

    Blackboard contains a stem that refers to "a large, smooth, usually dark surface on which to write or draw with chalk". However, the stem is made up of two roots, black and board.

    Source:

    Neufeldt 1991 144

    What is a compound discourse?

    Definition

    A compound discourse is a discourse that contains sections belonging to two or more kinds of discourse.

    Example (Koine Greek)
  • In the Bible, Paul’s epistle to the Ephesians contains both expository discourse and hortatory discourse .
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of compound discourse:
    Generic
    A compound discourse is a kind of
    Source

    Longacre 1983 14

    What is a compound predicate?

    Definition

    A compound predicate is a predicate containing two or more coordinate or paratactic verbs or verb phrases .

    Generic
    A compound predicate is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 46

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 44

    What is a compound sentence?

    Definition

    A compound sentence is a sentence composed of two or more coordinate clauses .

    Generic
    A compound sentence is a kind of
    Source

    Lyons 1968 266

    What is a compulsion schema?

    Definition

    A compulsion schema is a force schema that involves an external force physically or metaphorically pushing, or tending to push, an object.

    Examples (English)
  • The experiences of being pushed by

    • wind
    • water, or
    • a moving crowd.
  • Generic
    A compulsion schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 45

    What is conceptual extendedness?

    Definition

    Conceptual extendedness is a semantic relationship between senses of a lexeme as currently recognized by speakers of a language.

    The progressive derivation of more figurative senses from the basic literal sense can be divided into three stages:

    In LinguaLinks, a sense in the lexical database may be classified by one of these categories to help in comparing it with other senses. The relationship of a particular sense to the primary sense, however, is somewhere on a continuum of conceptual extendedness. The classification is subjective, therefore, and should not be considered precise.

    Examples: English verb (rake)
    • Primary
      • 'to gather or scrape together with or as with a rake'
      • 'to scratch or smooth with a rake, as in leveling broken ground'
    • Secondary
      • 'to gather with great care'
      • 'to scratch or scrape'
      • 'to cover a fire with ashes (metonymy)'
    • Figurative
      • 'to search through minutely; scour (metaphor)'
      • 'to direct gunfire along a surface such as a line of troops or the deck of a ship'
      • 'to look over rapidly and searchingly'
    Sources

    Neufeldt 1991 108, 110

    Nonexample: English noun (bank)

    Here is a nonexample of conceptual extendedness as illustrated by the English noun bank using only the primary senses of each lexeme:

  • bank (1) 'an establishment for receiving, keeping, lending, or sometimes, issuing money'
  • bank (2) 'a stretch of rising land at the edge of a body of water, especially a stream or river'
  • bank (3) 'a bench for rowers in a galley'
  • These three lexemes were semantically related in Old High German. However, an English speaker today would not consider them to be semantically related at all, even though the words sound the same and are written the same. They are therefore considered to be homographs rather than three senses of the same lexeme.

    What is a concession relation?

    Definition

    A concession relation is a relation of unexpectedness between propositions . Some proposition(s) in the relation are expressed as unexpected (the contraexpectation ) in light of some other proposition(s) (the concession ).

    Examples (English)
    • Even though it was 5:00, the streets were clear.
    • Yet
    • Nevertheless
    • Although
    • Certain senses of

      • but, and
      • while
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of concession relations:
    Generic
    A concession relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 104–106

    Hollenbach 1975 17–18

    Longacre 1983 134–135

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 13–16

    Matthiessen and Thompson 1987 26–27

    Konig 1986 237

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 250

    What is a concrete noun?

    Definition

    A concrete noun is a noun that refers to what is viewed as a material entity.

    Generic
    A concrete noun is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 47

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 247

    What is a conditional relation?

    Definition

    A conditional relation is a logical relation in which the illocutionary act employing one of a pair of propositions is expressed or implied to be true or in force if the other proposition is true.

    Examples (English)
    • If you give her the ring, then you are married to her. I hereby pronounce you married. Are you married to her? Do marry her. If only you would marry her!

      Source:

      Johnson-Laird 1986 61

    • Once admit that they have a case, and your moral superiority collapses.

      Source:

      Haiman 1986 218

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of conditional relations:
    Generic
    A conditional relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Beekman and Callow 1974 303–304

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 258–259

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 65–66

    Johnson-Laird 1986 61–64

    Comrie 1986 89

    Haiman 1986 218–219

    Ford and Thompson 1986 363–365

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1091

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 5

    What is a conjunction?

    Definition

    A conjunction is a word that

    • syntactically links words or larger constituents , and
    • expresses a semantic relationship between them.

    A conjunction is positionally fixed relative to one or more of the elements related by it, thus distinguishing it from constituents such as English conjunctive adverbs .

    Examples (English)
    • Coordinating conjunctions
      • and
      • or
      • but
    • Subordinating conjunctions
      • because
      • when
      • unless
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of conjunctions:
    Generic
    A conjunction is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 80

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 48–49

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 45

    Mish 1991 277–278

    What is a conjunctive adverb?

    Definition

    A conjunctive adverb is an adverb that functions like a conjunction by expressing the relationship between independent sentences .

    Discussion

    In English, a conjunctive adverb’s position in a sentence is flexible.

    Examples (English)
    • I don’t like the job; still, I’ll take it.
    • I don’t like the job; I’ll take it, still.
    Generic
    A conjunctive adverb is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 45

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 49

    Crystal 1980 65

    Mish 1991 278

    What is a conjunctive illocutionary act?

    Definition

    A conjunctive illocutionary act is a complex illocutionary act that consists of the performance of two or more illocutionary acts in one utterance .

    Example (English)
  • The following illocutionary act consists of an assertion and a question:

  • I will go to his house, but will he be there?
  • Source:

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 4

  • Generic
    A conjunctive illocutionary act is a kind of
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985: 4, 74

    What is a conjunctive verb?

    Definition

    A conjunctive verb is a verb form which is used specifically in a conjoined clause .

    Discussion

    A conjunctive verb has a verb form which differs from that of the clause to which it is conjoined.

    Generic
    A conjunctive verb is a kind of
    Source

    Bybee 1985 187

    What is a connective?

    Definition

    Here are two senses of connective:

    1. A connective, in its most common usage, is an expression having a function similar to that of a conjunction .
    2. A connective, broadly defined, is any linguistic unit that links two other constituents together.

      Examples:

      Conjunctions

      Copulas

      Conjunctive adverbs

    Examples (English)
    • and
    • or
    • but
    • whereas
    • in case
    • thus
    • the result is
    • so much that
    Source:

    Rudolph 1988 110–111

    Sources

    Crystal 1985 66

    Rudolph 1988 97–98, 110–111

    What is a consonant?

    Definition

    A consonant is a sound made by a partial or complete closure of the vocal tract.

    Discussion

    A consonant is produced by an interaction between a passive articulator and an active articulator. The active articulator is brought into contact with or in close proximity to the passive articulator.

    Here are the two parameters for identifying consonants:

    The production of consonants can be modified. For more information,

    See:

    What is a consonant modification?

    See also

    What is a consonant modification?

    Definition

    A consonant modification is an addition or alteration to the basic way that a consonant is articulated.

    What is a constituent?

    Definition

    A constituent is one of two or more grammatical units that enter syntactically or morphologically into a construction at any level.

    Examples (English)
  • The sentence You eat bananas contains the following constituents:

    Immediate constituents
    • you
    • eat bananas
    Ultimate constituents
    • you
    • eat
    • banana
    • -s
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of constituents:
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 68

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 38

    Mish 1991 281

    What is a construction?

    Definition

    A construction is an ordered arrangement of grammatical units forming a larger unit.

    Discussion

    Different usages of the term construction include or exclude stems and words.

    Examples (English)
    • [subject + verb + object] forms a clause
    • [determiner + noun] forms a noun phrase
    • [adjective + noun + plural marker] forms a compound noun
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of constructions:
    Generic
    A construction is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 85–86

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 51

    Mish 1991 281

    Pike and Pike 1982 440

    Fleming 1988 263

    What is a container metaphor?

    Definition

    A containment metaphor is an ontological metaphor in which some concept is represented as

    • having an inside and outside, and
    • capable of holding something else.
    Examples (English)
    • I’ve had a full life.
    • Life is empty for him.
    • Her life is crammed with activities.
    • Get the most out of life.

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 51

    Generic
    A container metaphor is a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 29–30, 51

    What is a containment schema?

    Definition

    A containment schema is an image schema that involves a physical or metaphorical

    • boundary
    • enclosed area or volume, or
    • excluded area or volume.
    Discussion

    A containment schema can have additional optional properties, such as

    • transitivity of enclosure (whereby if one object is enclosed by a second, and that by a third, the first is also enclosed by the third)
    • objects inside or outside the boundary
    • protectedness of an enclosed object
    • the restriction of forces inside the enclosure, and
    • the relatively fixed position of an enclosed object.
    Generic
    A containment schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 21-22

    What is the context of an expression?

    Definition

    The context of an expression or a text is the social situation in which something is said. It includes any information relevant to understanding the appropriate use of an expression or the interpretation of a text.

    Discussion

    The context of an expression answers the following questions:

    • Who said it? Who was addressed?
    • What were the circumstances? What was the occasion?
    • When was this word or expression used? When was the text given?
    • Where was it spoken?
    • Why was it spoken?
    • How was it spoken? How was it received?
    Examples: Speech registers in Javanese (Indonesia)

    In Javanese, the social context of an expression is very important. The difference in social status between the speaker and the hearer determines the choice of speech register.

    Formal register

    When speaking to someone with a higher status, you use a formal register.

  • Kulo saweg maos buku Djawi
  • I be (PROG) read book Javanese
  • 'I'm reading a Javanese book.'
  • Informal register

    When speaking to someone with a lower status, you use an informal register:

  • Aku lagi motjo buku Djowo
  • I be (PROG) read book Javanese
  • 'I'm reading a Javanese book.'
  • Note that both expressions mean the same thing. It is, therefore, very important in data collection to record the social context of an expression.

    Source

    Anderson, S. and Keenan 1985 274–275

    What is a continuant?

    Definition

    A continuant is a sound produced with an incomplete closure of the vocal tract.

    Discussion

    All vowels and fricatives are continuants.

    Antonym
    The antonym of a continuant is

    stop .

    Source

    Crystal 1991 :80

    What is a continuer?

    Definition

    A continuer is a move that returns speakership to another participant.

    It shows that the speaker

    • recognizes that the other participant is forming a lengthy unit of talk, and
    • allows the participant to continue.
    Examples (English)
    • uh huh
    • mm hm
    • yeah
    Generic
    A continuer is a kind of
    Source

    Greatbatch 1988 411

    What is continuous aspect?

    Definition

    Continuous aspect is an imperfective aspect that expresses an ongoing, but not habitual, occurrence of the state or event expressed by the verb .

    Example (Quechua)
  • The word -sa expresses continuous aspect, as in the following example:

  • rik''usan ‘He sees it.’ (literally, ‘He is seeing it.’)
  • Source:

    Bills, Vallejo, and Troike 1969 21

  • Kind
    Here is a kind of continuous aspect:
    Generic
    Continuous aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Comrie 1976a 12, 26

    Dahl 1985 94

    Bills, Vallejo, and Troike 1969 21

    What is a contoid?

    Definition

    A contoid is a sound made with enough closure of the oral cavity to produce audible friction in the mouth.

    It has the potential to be analyzed phonemically as a consonant.

    Instances

    Contoids are pronounced with different manners of articulation.

    Here is a table showing examples of different manners of articulation for contoids:

    Manner of articulation

    Examples

    Plosive (stops)

    [p], [b], [d], [t], [k], [g]

    Nasal

    [m], [n], [ø], [N]

    Flap

    [R]

    Trill

    [r], [{]

    Fricative (sibilant, spirant)

    [B], [D], [T], [f], [v], [s], [z], [&u0278], [h]

    Affricate

    [tS], [dZ]

    Lateral

    [l]

    Liquid, approximant, semivowel

    [&u0279], [Ó], [j], [w]

    See also

    What is a contraction relation?

    Definition

    A contraction relation is an interpropositional relation in which information previously expressed is partially restated.

    Example (English)
  • I won’t go to see him, I just won’t go.

    Source:

    Longacre 1983 121

  • Kind
    Here is a kind of contraction relation:
    Generic
    A contraction relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1983 20, 121

    Beekman and Callow 1974 299

    What is contrast in analogous environments?

    Definition

    Contrast in analogous environments is the difference between two phonetically similar segments that occur in two separate words and have similar adjacent sounds.

    Discussion

    If neither segment has been modified or affected by its environment , the segments are separate phonemes .

    Examples (Kaiwa, Brazil)

    The segments [p] and [b] contrast in analogous environments in the following words:

    • [opa] 'it is finished'
    • [aba] 'place'

    The implication is that /p/ and /b/ are separate phonemes.

    See also

    What is contrast in identical environments?

    Definition

    Contrast in identical environments is the difference between two phonetically similar segments that occur in two separate words and have identical adjacent sounds.

    If neither segment has been modified or affected by its environment , the segments are separate phonemes .

    Examples (English)

    The segments [l] and [r] contrast in identical environments in the following minimal pair .

    • [lip]
    • [rip]

    The implication is that /l/ and /r/ are separate phonemes.

    Examples (Cashinahua, Peru/Brazil)

    The segments [s ] and [S] contrast in identical environments in the following minimal pair:

    • [m&u0268su] 'swollen hand'
    • [m&u0268Su] 'black, dark'

    The implication is that /s/ and /S/ are separate phonemes.

    See also

    What is a contrast relation?

    Definition

    A contrast relation is an interpropositional relation which expresses that a difference between one proposition and another is relevant.

    Examples (English)
  • Some uses of the following words signify a contrast relation:

    • however
    • on the other hand
    • but

      Example:

      Animals heal, but trees compartmentalize.

      Source:

      ( Scientific American, cited by Mann and Thompson 1987b 75 )

  • Kind
    Here is a kind of contrast relation:
    Generic
    A contrast relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1983 83–85, 88

    Bickford and Daly 1996 100–102

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 247, 252

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 74–75

    What is contrastive analysis?

    Definition

    Contrastive analysis is an inductive investigative approach based on the distinctive elements in a language.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of contrastive analysis:

    What is conventional implicature?

    Definition

    Conventional implicature is an implicature that is

    • part of a lexical item’s or expression’s agreed meaning, rather than derived from principles of language use, and
    • not part of the conditions for the truth of the item or expression.
    Example (English)
  • A speaker using the word but between coordinate clauses thinks that some contrast or concession relation is relevant between the clauses.
  • Generic
    Conventional implicature is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 127–128

    What is a conventional metaphor?

    Definition

    A conventional metaphor is a metaphor that is commonly used in everyday language in a culture to give structure to some portion of that culture’s conceptual system.

    Examples (English)
    • The understanding of time as a resource

      Example:

      Time is running out.

    • The understanding of life as a journey

      Example:

      It’s time to get on with your life.

    See also:

    Conventional metaphors in English

    for many more examples.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of conventional metaphors:
    Generic
    A conventional metaphor is a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 66, 139

    What is a conventional metonymy?

    Definition

    A conventional metonymy is a metonymy that is commonly used in everyday language in a culture to give structure to some portion of that culture’s conceptual system.

    Examples (English)
    • The understanding of a reference to the face as standing for the whole person

      Example:

      We need some new faces around here.

    • The understanding of a reference to the physiological response of increased body heat as standing for anger

      Example:

      Don’t get hot under the collar.

    See also:

    Conventional metonymies in English for many more examples.

    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 35–36, 38, 66, 139

    What is conversation analysis?

    Definition

    Conversation analysis is an approach to the study of natural conversation, especially with a view to determining the following:

    • Participants’ methods of

      • turn -taking
      • constructing sequences of utterances across turns
      • identifying and repairing problems, and
      • employing gaze and movement
    • How conversation works in different conventional settings
    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of conventional settings in which conversation analysis could take place:

    • Interviews
    • Court hearings
    • Telephone conversations
    • Card games
    Generic
    A conversation analysis is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 294–296

    Hopper, Koch, and Mandelbaum 1986 169–170, 173

    What is conversational implicature?

    Definition

    Conversational implicature is a nonconventional implicature based on an addressee’s assumption that the speaker is following the conversational maxims or at least the cooperative principle .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of conversational implicatures:
    Generic
    Conversational implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 101–104, 113–114

    Grice 1975 45–46, 49–50

    Crystal 1985 153

    What is a conversational maxim?

    Definition

    A conversational maxim is any of four rules which were proposed by Grice 1975 , stating that a speaker is assumed to make a contribution that

    • is adequately but not overly informative (quantity maxim)
    • the speaker does not believe to be false and for which adequate evidence is had (quality maxim)
    • is relevant (maxim of relation or relevance), and
    • is clear, unambiguous, brief, and orderly (maxim of manner).
    Discussion

    The conversational maxims, along with the cooperative principle , partly account for conversational implicatures .

    Sources

    Levinson 1983 101–104, 113–114

    Grice 1975 45–46, 49–50

    Crystal 1985 153

    What is the cooperative principle?

    Definition

    The cooperative principle is a principle of conversation that was proposed by Grice 1975 , stating that participants expect that each will make a “conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange.”

    Discussion

    The cooperative principle, along with the conversational maxims, partly accounts for conversational implicatures . Participants assume that a speaker is being cooperative, and thus they make conversational implicatures about what is said.

    Example (English)
  • When a speaker makes an apparently uninformative remark such as “War is war,” the addressee assumes that the speaker is being cooperative and looks for the implicature the speaker is making.

    Source:

    Levinson 1983 110–111

  • Sources

    Levinson 1983 101–104, 110–114

    Grice 1975 45–46, 49–50

    Crystal 1985 153

    What is a coordinate clause?

    Definition

    A coordinate clause is a clause belonging to a series of two or more clauses which

    Examples (English)
    • I will go home and he will go to work.
    • John likes hamburgers, but Mary prefers hot dogs.
    • We might go to Seattle, or we might go to California.
    Generic
    A coordinate clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 92

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 54

    Foley, W. and Van Valin 1984 243

    Payne, J. 1985 3

    Mish 1991 288

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 46

    What is a coordinating conjunction?

    Definition

    A coordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other.

    Examples (English)
    • and
    • but
    • or
    Kind
    Here is a kind of coordinating conjunction:
    Generic
    A coordinating conjunction is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 54

    Crystal 1980 76

    Mish 1991 288

    What is a copula?

    Definition

    A copula is an intransitivity verb which links a subject

    Examples (English)
    • The book is on the table.
    • The weather seems good.
    Generic
    A copula is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 93

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 55

    Schachter 1985 11

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1171–1172

    Mish 1991 289

    Crystal 1980 213

    Mish 1991 696

    What is a core argument?

    Definition

    A core argument of a verb is a subject , direct object , or indirect object .

    Examples

    In John gave a donation to the Salvation Army, the core arguments are John, a donation, and Salvation Army.

    See also

    What is coreference?

    Definition

    Coreference is the reference in one expression to the same referent in another expression.

    Example (English)
  • In the following sentence, both you's have the same referent:

  • You said you would come.
  • Generic
    A coreference is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 93

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 863

    What is a correction relation?

    Definition

    A correction relation is an antithesis relation in which the speaker's expression of positive regard reinforces, redefines, or corrects one or the other of the contrasted propositions or groups of propositions.

    Examples (English)
    • I would be glad if you came; in fact, I would be delighted.

      Source:

      Dijk 1981 280

    • He showed no pleasure at hearing the news; instead he looked even gloomier.

      Source:

      Halliday and Hasan 1976 254

    Generic
    A correction relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 254

    Dijk 1981 270–271, 279–280

    What is a correlative conjunction?

    Definition

    A correlative conjunction is either of a pair of coordinating conjunctions used in ordered fashion. Typically, one is used immediately before each member of a pair of constituents .

    Example (English)
  • Either you or I
  • Generic
    A correlative conjunction is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 49

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 55

    Mish 1991 293

    What is a count noun?

    Definition

    A count noun is a noun whose possible referents are thought of as separate entities.

    It thus has the ability

    It does not have the ability, however, to occur with a determiner such as much.

    Discussion

    Some nouns permit treatment as either count or mass nouns .

    Example:

    In English, salad may be treated as either a count or mass noun, as evidenced by the acceptability of the following expressions:

    • Many salads
    • Much salad
    Examples (English)
  • The word farmer is an example of a count noun, as evidenced by the acceptability of the following expressions:

    • Farmer
    • Farmers
    • A farmer
    • Many farmers
    • Two farmers

    However, the expression much farmer is not acceptable.

  • Generic
    A count noun is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 79

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 246

    Mish 1991 298

    What is a counteragent as a semantic role?

    Definition

    A counteragent is the semantic role of a force or resistance against which an action is carried out.

    Generic
    A counteragent is a kind of
    Source

    Lyons 1977a

    What is a counterfactual conditional relation?

    Definition

    A counterfactual conditional relation is a conditional relation in which the form of expression of the antecedent and consequent marks them as imagined, nonfactual states or events.

    Discussion

    Comrie 1986 :89–90 establishes that the putative English counterfactuals do not contain the nonfactuality of either the antecedent or the consequent as part of their inherent meaning. Thus, If you gave me a kiss, I’d buy you a beer does not express the impossibility of either the kiss or the beer. Additionally, in If the butler had done it, we would have found just the clues that we did in fact find, it is clear that the consequent is factual, and factuality of the antecedent is possible.

    Example (English)
  • If we were angels, we wouldn’t need police.
  • Generic
    A counterfactual conditional relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 104

    Longacre 1983 110

    Longacre 1985 245–246

    Comrie 1986 89–90

    Crystal 1985 79–80

    What is a counterforce schema?

    Definition

    A counterforce schema is a force schema that involves the active meeting of physically or metaphorically opposing forces.

    Examples (English)
  • The experiences of

    • football players, and
    • participants in head-on auto collisions.
  • Generic
    A counterforce schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 46

    What is a cycle schema?

    Definition

    A cycle schema is an image schema which involves repetitious events and event series.

    Its structure includes the following:

    • A starting point
    • A progression through successive events without backtracking
    • A return to the initial state

    The schema often has superimposed on it a structure that builds toward a climax and then goes through a release or decline.

    Examples (English)
    • Days
    • Weeks
    • Years
    • Sleeping and waking
    • Breathing
    • Circulation
    • Emotional buildup and release
    Generic
    A cycle schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 119–121