What is a background relation?

Definition

A background relation is an interpropositional relation in which one or more propositions are provided as information necessary for the proper understanding of some other proposition(s).

Example (English)
  • In the following construction, the first proposition provides background information for the second:

  • Someone left a coffee cup in my office; would the owner please come and get it?

    Adapted from:

    Matthiessen and Thompson 1987 26

  • Generic
    A background relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 53–54

    Matthiessen and Thompson 1987 26

    What is a balance schema?

    Definition

    A balance schema is a force schema that

    • provides an understanding of physical or metaphorical counteracting forces
    • is based on a prototypical schema consisting of countervailing forces acting on a target that is a

      • point
      • line, or
      • plane
    • is based on bodily experience, such as maintaining

      • erect posture
      • normal bodily states, such as temperature, and
    • may be applied metaphorically to provide an understanding of other experiences, such as balance of the visual field with respect to art.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of balance schemata:
    Generic
    A balance schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 74–75, 80, 85

    What is a beginning-postspan relation?

    Definition

    A beginning–postspan relation is a temporal relation in which an event or state is expressed as marking the initiation of a durative event or state.

    Example (English)
  • Things have changed since you left.
  • Generic
    A beginning–postspan relation is a kind of
    Source

    Hollenbach 1975 16

    What is benefactive case?

    Definition

    Benefactive case is a case that expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause.

    Generic
    Benefactive case is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 43

    Gove 1966 203

    What is a beneficiary as a semantic role?

    Definition

    A beneficiary is the semantic role of a referent which is advantaged or disadvantaged by an event.

    Example (English)
  • John sold the car for a friend.
  • Generic
    A beneficiary is a kind of
    Source

    Larson 1984 199–203

    What is a biconditional relation?

    Definition

    A biconditional relation is a relation between a consequent and a condition. The consequent is true or in force if and only if the condition is true, with the result that there is a conditional relation in both directions between the related propositions .

    Example (English)
  • If and only if he goes, I go.

    Note:

    This sequence also has the incidental meaning of If I go, he goes.

  • Generic
    A biconditional relation is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1986 79

    What is a blockage schema?

    Definition

    A blockage schema is a force schema in which a force is physically or metaphorically stopped or redirected by an obstacle.

    Example (English)
  • A crawling baby encountering a wall is stopped or redirected by the wall.
  • Generic
    A blockage schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 45

    What is a blocking circumstance?

    Definition

    A blocking circumstance is a factor, sometimes expressed along with a concession relation , that

    • thwarts an expected event or state, and
    • results in an unexpected event or state.
    Example (English)
  • In the following example, you’re not big enough is the blocking circumstance and the concession is I know you want to play. The implied unexpected state is not being able to play:

  • I know you want to play, but you’re not big enough.
  • Source

    Longacre 1983 135

    What is a bound morpheme?

    Definition

    A bound morpheme is a grammatical unit that never occurs by itself, but is always attached to some other morpheme.

    Example (English)

    The plural morpheme -s in dogs

    Generic
    A bound morpheme is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 36, 268

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 31

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 29

    Mish 1991 171

    What is a bound root?

    Definition

    A bound root is a root which cannot occur as a separate word apart from any other morpheme.

    What is a bound stem?

    Definition

    A bound stem is a stem which cannot occur as a separate word apart from any other morpheme.

    What is bounded deixis?

    Definition

    Bounded deixis is place deixis that has a component of meaning indicative of a border.

    Examples (English)
    • out there
    • in there
    Generic
    Bounded deixis is a kind of
    Source

    Denny 1978 74

    What is boundedness?

    Definition

    Boundedness is the presence or absence of a component of meaning indicative of a border at the location indicated in an expression of place deixis .

    Examples (English expressions)
    • out there
    • in there
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of boundedness:
    Source

    Denny 1978: 74

    What is a brand-new entity?

    Definition

    A brand-new entity is a referent that

    • has not been mentioned previously in the discourse, and
    • is assumed by the speaker to be previously unknown to the addressee .
    Example (English)
  • In the following example, a guy I work with refers to a brand-new entity. However, when referred to again as he, it is no longer brand new, but salient information :

  • A guy I work with says he knows your sister.

    Source:

    Prince 1981 233

  • Kind
    Here is a kind of brand-new entity:
    Generic
    A brand-new entity is a kind of
    Source

    Prince 1981 233, 235–236

    What is a breathy vowel?

    Definition

    A breathy vowel is one produced by allowing a great deal of air to pass through a slightly open glottis, the aperture between the vocal cords ( Crystal 1985 38 ).

    See also
    • Options for symbolizing voiceless vowels

    What is a bystander?

    Definition

    A bystander is a person in a participant role of audience or unratified participant .

    Generic
    A bystander is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 68–69, 91

    Goffman 1976 260

    What is a bystander honorific?

    Definition

    A bystander honorific is an honorific in which the social status of some other person present is expressed through choices made among linguistic alternants. These choices

    • are made based upon the person’s relationship to the speaker , but
    • do not depend on whether

      • the alternants refer to the person, or
      • the person is the addressee .
    Example (Dyirbal, Australia)
  • Dyirbal has a "mother-in-law language" which is a set of lexical items substituted in the presence of

    • opposite-sex parents-in-law
    • opposite-sex children-in-law, and
    • opposite-sex cross-cousins.
    Source:

    Dixon 1972 32

  • Generic
    A bystander honorific is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 90–91

    Comrie 1976b

    Dixon 1972 32