Linguistic terminology terms | LETTER - J

What is judgment modality?


Judgment modality is an epistemic modality that connotes the speaker's

  • strength of inference, or
  • degree of confidence

in the reality of the proposition expressed by his or her utterance.

Examples (English)

Here are some examples of words that express different kinds of judgment modality:

  • may signals speculative inference
  • must signals deductive strength of inference
Here are some kinds of judgment modality:
Judgment modality is a kind of

Palmer 1986 53, 57–58, 64

What is jussive mood?


Jussive mood is a directive mood that signals a speaker 's command, permission, or agreement that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance be brought about.


Jussive mood is typically applicable in the first and third person .

Jussive mood is a kind of

Chung and Timberlake 1985 247

Mish 1991 655

Pei and Gaynor 1954 110

Palmer 1986 10, 24, 39–40, 96,110, 113

What is a justification relation?


A justification relation is an interpropositional relation in which one or more propositions provide the basis or right of the speaker to perform the illocutionary act expressed in another proposition.

Example (English)
  • Music Day is July 21; I'll post details later, but this is a good time to mark your calendar.
  • The two clauses after the semicolon justify the announcement of “Music Day” without details.

    Adapted from:

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 10

    A justification relation is a kind of

    Mann and Thompson 1987b: 10–11