What is a narrative discourse?

Definition

A narrative discourse is a discourse that is an account of events, usually in the past, that employs verbs of speech, motion, and action to describe a series of events that are contingent one on another, and that typically focuses on one or more performers of actions.

Features
Examples
  • Folk stories

    • Stories about real or imagined ancestors, often containing supernatural elements
  • Historical events

    • Stories or accounts about the social and political history of the world and its contacts with the rest of the world
  • Mythology

    • Stories explaining origins, natural phenomena, or social and religious customs, often involving the supernatural
  • Personal experience

    • Accounts of significant events in the life of the narrator or the community
Parts
  • Exposition or setting
  • Inciting moment
  • Developing conflict
  • Climax
  • Denouement
  • Final suspense
  • Conclusion
Generic
A narrative discourse is a kind of
Sources

Longacre 1990 2

Larson 1984 366–367

Longacre 1983 3, 5

What is a narrative text?

Definition

A narrative text is an account of events.

Sources

Larson 1984 366

Longacre 1983 5

What is nasalization?

Definition

Nasalization is a way of pronouncing sounds characterized by resonance produced through the nose.

What is a nasalized vowel?

Definition

A nasalized vowel is a vowel that is nasalized by a process in which the soft palate is lowered, opening the velum, which allows air to go through both the nasal and oral cavities.

What is a natural class?

Definition

A natural class is a set of sounds that have certain phonetic features in common.

All the members of a natural class are affected in the same way in the same environment . Similarly, all members of a natural class have the same effect on other sounds that occur in their environment.

For a group of sounds to constitute a natural class,

  • they must all share one or more features and
  • there should be no other sounds in the language that have this feature or combination of features.
Examples (Isthmus Zapotec, Mexico)
  • Voiced plosives {b, d, g} form a natural class. All the members of the set are affected the same way in the same environment.
  • For example, following the voiceless S (possessive prefix), voiced plosives are realized as the corresponding voiceless plosives. These voiceless plosives form another natural class {p, t, k}:

    bere

    ‘chicken’

    S-pere-be

    ‘his chicken’

    biuuza?

    ‘guest’

    S-piuuza-be

    ‘his guest’

    daa

    ‘mat’

    S-taa-be

    ‘his mat’

    doo

    ‘rope’

    S-too-be

    ‘his rope’

    geta

    ‘tortilla’

    S-keta-be

    ‘his tortilla’

    gamiZa?

    ‘shirt’

    S-kamiZa-be

    ‘his shirt’

    Source:

    Merrifield 1987 80

  • Examples (English)
  • Voiceless plosives form a natural class. They all have the same effect on voicing a following fricative (realized as [s]). Likewise, voiced plosives form a natural class and all have the same effect on a following fricative (realized as [z]).

    map[s]

    tab[z]

    cup[s]

    cub[z]

    mat[s]

    fad[z]

    hit[s]

    bid[z]

    pack[s]

    rag[z]

    tick[s]

    leg[z]

    Source:

    Burquest and Payne 1993 10

  • Kinds

    Here are some kinds of natural classes:

    • Plosive
    • Coronal consonant
    • Voiced fricative
    • Voiceless fricative
    • Rounded vowel
    • Sonorant

    What is necessity?

    Definition

    Necessity is a degree of contingency in modality that in

    Generic
    Necessity is a kind of
    Sources

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 242, 246

    Lyons 1977b 791

    What is negation?

    Definition

    Negation is a morphosyntactic operation in which a lexical item denies or inverts the meaning of another lexical item or construction.

    A negator is a lexical item that expresses negation.

    Examples: Lexical items (English)
    • not
    • non-
    • un-
    Sources

    Crystal 1991 231

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 145

    What is a negative conditional relation?

    Definition

    A negative conditional relation is a conditional relation

    • in which the consequent is related to the opposite meaning of the antecedent , and
    • that is marked on

      • the antecedent to carry the meaning equivalent to "unless," or
      • the consequent to carry the meaning equivalent to "otherwise."
    Examples (English)
    Generic
    A negative conditional relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 196

    Dijk 1977 78–79

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 259

    What is a negative purpose relation?

    Definition

    A negative purpose relation is a means-purpose relation in which the expressed intent is avoidance of a state or event. The state or event to be avoided is marked by a form equivalent to the meaning of "lest."

    Example (English)
  • He avoided slippery streets, lest he have an accident.
  • Generic
    A negative purpose relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 188

    Beekman and Callow 1974 303

    What is neuter gender?

    Definition

    Neuter gender is a grammatical gender that

    • includes those nouns having referents which do not have distinctions of sex, and
    • often includes some which do have a natural sex distinction.
    Examples (German)

    Here are some examples of words that have neuter gender [diacritical markings are not reproduced here]:

    • das Festmahl ‘the banquet’
    • das Madchen ‘the girl’
    Generic
    Neuter gender is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 93

    Mish 1991 795

    What is new information?

    Definition

    New information is information that is assumed by the speaker not

    Discussion

    New information typically

    • is placed late in the sentence, and
    • has a high amount of stress placed on the words representing it.
    Examples (English)
  • In the following exchange, the stressed words are new information:

  • A: Do you know where my SHOES are?
  • B: I put them in the CLOSET.
  • Kinds
    Generic
    New information is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 241

    Levinson 1983 88

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1361

    What is a new metaphor?

    Definition

    A new metaphor is a metaphor that is not already part of the conceptual system of a culture as reflected in its language.

    Example (English)
  • Love is a collaborative work of art.

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 139

  • Kind
    Here is a kind of new metaphor:
    Generic
    A new metaphor is a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 139

    What is a newsmark?

    Definition

    A newsmark is a move that treats a previous utterance as news and encourages further talk about it.

    Examples (English)
  • The following ritual expressions of disbelief are newsmarks:

    • You don’t say
    • You’re kidding
  • Generic
    A newsmark is a kind of
    Source

    Greatbatch 1988 406

    What is a next turn repair initiator?

    Definition

    A next turn repair initiator is an utterance , used in the turn after a repairable item, that prompts for a third turn repair in the next turn.

    Example (English)
  • In the following exchange, What? is the next turn repair initiator for the third turn repair in the next turn:

  • A: I need a new bolt for my oil filter.
  • B: What?
  • A: I mean for my oil PAN.
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of a next turn repair initiator:
    Generic
    A next turn repair initiator is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 335, 339

    What is a nominal?

    Definition

    A nominal is a word which differs grammatically from a noun but functions as one.

    Example (English)
  • In the poor are many, the word poor is a nominal. It functions as a noun; however, it does not pluralize.

    Source:

    Crystal 1980 242

  • Generic
    A nominal is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 242

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 151

    Mish 1991 801

    What is a nominal clause?

    Definition

    A nominal clause is a subordinate clause that functions as a noun phrase .

    Examples (English)
    • I know that he is here.
    • From where I stood, I saw the horse.
    Kind
    Here is a kind of nominal clause:
    Generic
    A nominal clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 151

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1048

    Crystal 1985 207

    What is a nominalization?

    Definition

    A nominalization is a noun phrase that has a systematic correspondence with a clausal predication which includes a head noun morphologically related to a corresponding verb .

    Example (English)
  • The noun phrase refusal to help corresponds to he refuses to help. The head noun refusal is morphologically related to the verb refuse.

    Source:

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1288

  • Generic
    A nominalization is a kind of
    Sources

    Noonan 1985 60

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1288

    What is nominative case?

    Definition

    Nominative case is the case that identifies clause subjects in nominative-accusative languages. Nouns used in isolation have this case.

    Discussion

    Nominative case is not often formally marked in nominative-accusative languages.

    Generic
    Nominative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 242

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 147

    Mish 1991 801

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 224

    What is a nonconventional implicature?

    Definition

    An nonconventional implicature is a implicature that is drawn in accordance with pragmatic principles, such as the cooperative principle or the informativeness principle , rather than the meaning of a lexical item or expression.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of nonconventional implicatures:
    Generic
    A nonconventional implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 127–128, 131–132

    Gazdar 1979 49–50

    What is a nonconversational implicature?

    Definition

    A nonconversational implicature is a nonconventional implicature that arises from the operation of a principle or maxim of language usage other than the cooperative principle and conversational maxims , such as an implicature derived from an assumption of the informativeness principle .

    Kind
    Here is a kind of nonconversational implicature:
    Generic
    A nonconversational implicature is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 131

    What is a nondefective illocutionary act?

    Definition

    A nondefective illocutionary act is an illocutionary act for which all the presuppositions of the propositional content conditions , preparatory conditions , and sincerity conditions are satisfied.

    Generic
    A nondefective illocutionary act is a kind of
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 22–23, 78

    What is nonextendedness?

    Definition

    Nonextendedness is place deixis that has a component of meaning indicating that the location does not have length or area.

    Generic
    Nonextendedness is a kind of
    Source

    Denny 1978 72–73

    What is a nonfinite clause?

    Definition

    A nonfinite clause is a clause with a nonfinite verb .

    Generic
    A nonfinite clause is a kind of
    Source

    Crystal 1980 61

    What is a nonfinite verb?

    Definition

    A nonfinite verb is a verb that is not fully inflected for categories that are marked inflectionally in a language, such as the following:

    Kind
    Here is a kind of nonfinite verb:
    Generic
    A nonfinite verb is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 153

    Crystal 1980 146

    Palmer 1986 156, 162

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 150

    What is nonfuture tense?

    Definition

    Nonfuture tense is an absolute tense that

    Generic
    A nonfuture tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 48–50

    What is nonpast tense?

    Definition

    Nonpast tense is an absolute tense that

    Generic
    Nonpast tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 153

    Comrie 1985b 48–49

    What is nonrecent past tense?

    Definition

    Nonrecent past tense is a past tense that refers to a time before the range of a contrasting recent past tense .

    Generic
    Nonrecent past tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 87

    What is nonremote past tense?

    Definition

    Nonremote past tense is a past tense that refers to a time considered not more than a few days ago, in contrast to a remote past tense .

    Generic
    Nonremote past tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 88

    What is a nonrestrictive relative clause?

    Definition

    A nonrestrictive relative clause is a relative clause that does not aid in the identification of the referent of its head noun , but only provides information about it.

    Discussion

    A nonrestrictive relative clause is formally distinguished in some languages.

    Example (English)
  • John, who passed the test, was elated.
  • Generic
    A nonrestrictive relative clause is a kind of
    See also
    Source

    Comrie 1989 138–139

    What is nonspecificity?

    Definition

    Nonspecificity is a kind of definiteness, expressed by an interpretation of or grammatical marking on a noun or noun phrase , indicating that the speaker presumably does not know the identity of the referent(s) .

    Example (English)
  • The following sentence has the interpretation that the speaker does not have a particular Norwegian in mind:

  • Minna wants to meet a Norwegian.

    Source:

    Hawkins, J. 1978 204

  • Generic
    A nonspecific is a kind of
    Sources

    Anderson, S. 1985 179

    Hawkins, J. 1978 203–204

    What is a nonvisual evidential?

    Definition

    A nonvisual evidential is a sensory evidential that signals that the speaker 's evidence for the truth of his or her statement is derived from a sense other than sight.

    Kind
    Here is a kind of nonvisual evidential:
    Generic
    A nonvisual evidential is a kind of
    Source

    Palmer 1986 74

    What is notional?

    Definition

    A notional X is an X that is thought of informally or in extralinguistic terms.

    Examples

    A notional noun is a person, place or thing.

    A notional verb is a doing word.

    A notional sentence is a complete thought.

    Source

    Crystal 1997

    What is not-yet tense?

    Definition

    Not-yet tense is an absolute tense that refers to times at and before the moment of utterance in asserting the present and past nonoccurrence of an event or state. It tends to imply that the event or state is expected to occur in the future.

    This tense corresponds to the meaning of the English not yet.

    Example (Luganda)

    Here is an example of not-yet tense:

    te- tu- nna- genda
    NEG- we- NOT.YET- go
    ‘We have not yet gone.’
  • Source:

    Comrie 1985b 54

  • Generic
    Not-yet tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 54–55

    What is a noun?

    Definition

    A noun is a member of a syntactic class

    • that includes words which refer to people, places, things, ideas, or concepts
    • whose members may act as any of the following: subjects of the verb, objects of the verb, indirect object of the verb, or object of a preposition (or postposition), and
    • most of whose members have inherently determined grammatical gender (in languages which inflect for gender).
    Discussion

    Nouns embody one of the most time-stable concepts in a language. As with verbs, however, this time-stability criterion defines only the prototypical nouns. Other, non-prototypical nouns must be identified by distributional similarities to prototypical nouns.

    Examples (English)
    • rock
    • tree
    • dog
    • person

    These nouns are prototypical nouns in English because they are perceived as concrete, physical, compact entities which do not change significantly over time.

    The following nouns are less prototypical because they represent concepts or items that are not perceived as staying the same for a long period of time, or are not concrete:

    • fist
    • beauty
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of nouns:
    Generic
    A noun is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 244

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 154

    Mish 1991 808

    Givón 1984 51–52

    Payne, T. 1997a 33, 39–41

    What is a noun adjunct?

    Definition

    A noun adjunct is a noun that functions as a modifier of a noun.

    Example (English)
  • In beef stew, the word beef is a noun adjunct.
  • Generic
    A noun adjunct is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 155

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 206

    What is a noun class?

    Definition

    A noun class system is a grammatical system that some languages use to overtly categorize nouns . Noun classes are

    Discussion

    A finer distinction may be made, according to R. M. W. Dixon, between prototypical noun classes (a grammatical system) and noun classifiers (a lexical set).

    Noun class systems have the following characteristics:

    • They typically comprise a closed set of two to twenty classes, into which all nouns in the language are divided.
    • Typically, few or no nouns can occur in more than one class.
    • Expression of the noun class is obligatory in all contexts.
    • Class may be marked on the noun itself, but will also always be marked on other constituents in the noun phrase or in the sentence that show concord (agreement) with the noun.
    Examples:

    Most types of gender systems and concord systems; many IndoEuropean languages, Bantu languages, Niger Congo languages, Dyirbal (Australian)

    Conversely, languages with noun classifier sets have the following characteristics:

    • They typically involve 20 or more classifiers (separate lexemes that co-occur with the noun). One hundred classifiers are common, and 400 are attested. Not every noun must take a classifier.
    • Many nouns can occur with more than one classifier.
    • The classifier occurs in only some syntactic environments. In addition, use of the classifier may be influenced by the pragmatics of style and the choice of written or spoken mode. (Often, the more formal the style, the richer the variety of classifiers used, and the higher the frequency of their use.)
    • Noun classifiers are always free lexical items that occur in the same noun phrase as the noun they qualify. They never form a morphological unit with the noun, and there is never agreement marking on the verb.

      Note:

      Noun classifiers are usually derived from words used as names of concrete, discrete, moveable objects.

    Examples:

    Japanese, Chinese, Southeast Asian languages, Austronesian languages, Mayan languages, American Sign Language

    Not all noun classifying languages fit neatly into one of these two prototypes of linguistic categorization. Various intermediate types are attested in languages of the Americas (see Craig 1986 4–5 ; Payne, D. 1986 113, 129, 130 ).

    Examples (Spanish)
  • In Spanish, nouns are classified by gender. In the following words, the suffixes -a ‘FEMININE’ and -o ‘MASCULINE’ express the noun class on the noun, and the articles la ‘FEMININE’ and el ‘MASCULINE’ agree with the nouns accordingly:

    • la hija ‘the daughter’
    • el hijo ‘the son’
    • la mesa ‘the table’
    • el mercado ‘the market’
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of noun classes:
    Generic
    A noun class is a kind of
    See also

    See the following for more information:

    Lakoff, G. 1987 91–114 (Chapter 6)

    Sources

    Craig 1986:(incomplete object)1–9

    Dixon 1968 105

    Dixon 1986 105–111

    What is a noun phrase?

    Definition

    A noun phrase is a phrase that has a noun as its head .

    Discussion

    A noun phrase generally includes one or more modifying words, but allowance is usually made for single-word minimal noun phrases that are composed only of a noun or pronoun .

    Kind
    Here is a kind of noun phrase:
    Generic
    A noun phrase is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 244

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 155

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 61

    What is a nuclear syllable?

    Definition

    A nuclear syllable is a syllable that carries maximum prominence, usually due to being stressed.

    Examples
    • “I will give you a permit.” Stress is on the nuclear syllable per of permit.
    • “I will permit you to do it.” Stress is on the nuclear syllable mit of permit.

    What is number?

    Definition

    Number is a grammatical category of nouns , pronouns , and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one" or "more than one").

    The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or pronoun.

    Example (English)
  • In the word girls, plural number is marked by the suffix -s.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of numbers:
    Generic
    A number is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 245

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 155

    Mish 1991 811

    What is a numeral?

    Definition

    A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as an adjective or pronoun, that expresses a

    • number, and
    • relation to the number, such as one of the following:

      • Quantity
      • Sequence
      • Frequency
      • Fraction
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of numerals:
    Generic
    A numeral is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 155

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 149