What is a phonological derivation?

Definition

A phonological derivation is the set of stages used to generate the phonetic representation of a word from its underlying representation.

Discussion

Here is a diagram of the stages in a derivation. Phonological rules influence each stage of a derivation:

Examples (English)

Here are some examples of the derivations of words having the negative prefix /In/:

See also
Source

Kenstowicz and Kisseberth 1979

What is a parable?

Definition

A parable is a brief allegory that is used to teach a moral lesson.

Generic
A parable is a kind of
Source

Corbett 1971 480

What is a paradigm?

Definition

1. A set of forms having a common root or stem , of which one form must be selected in certain grammatical environments.

2. The set of substitutional relationships a linguistic unit has with other units in a specific context.

Sources

Crystal 1997 277

Payne, T. 1997a 26

What is a paradigmatic lexical relation?

Definition

A paradigmatic lexical relation is a culturally determined pattern of association between lexical units that

Examples: English

Here is a table showing some common paradigmatic lexical relations in English with example sets and underlying structure:

  • Lexical relation

    Example set

    Underlying structure

    Synonym

    A "happy" synonym set: {happy, joyful, glad}

    simple set

    Scalar property

    A temperature set: {cold, cool, lukewarm, warm, hot}

    scale

    Opposite

    A social relation set: {(student, teacher), (patient, doctor)}

    set of pairs

    Generic-specific

    Animal

    • dog

      • collie
      • terrier
    • cat

      • Persian
      • Siamese

    tree

  • Kinds

    What is a paradox?

    Definition

    A paradox is a proposition that is or appears to be contradictory but expresses some measure of truth.

    Example (English)
  • Portnoy’s complaint ... is too funny not to be taken seriously.

    Source:

    (Time, February 21, 1969, cited by Corbett 1971 492 )

  • Generic
    A paradox is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 492–493

    Mish 1991 853

    What is paralipsis?

    Definition

    Paralipsis is a kind of irony in which the speaker proposes not to speak of a matter, but still somehow reveals it.

    Example (English)
  • I know who did it, but I won’t mention Bill’s name.
  • Generic
    Paralipsis is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 490

    Gove 1966 1637

    What is parataxis?

    Definition

    Parataxis is the juxtaposition of syntactic units without use of a conjunction .

    Examples (English)
    • He’s an engineer, isn’t he?
    • Breakfast, lunch, and dinner
    Sources

    Noonan 1985 55, 76–77

    Mish 1991 855

    Crystal 1985 221

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 919

    What is a parenthesis relation?

    Definition

    A parenthesis relation is an interpropositional relation in which some proposition(s) is a digression from those expressed before and after.

    Example (English)

    The phrase by the way signals the parenthesis relation:

  • If you’ll pick me up at 2:00—by the way, thanks for driving— we can be on our way.
  • Generic
    A parenthesis relation is a kind of
    Source

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 108

    What is paronomasia?

    Definition

    Paronomasia is the use of words that sound similar to other words, but have different meanings.

    Examples (English)
    • Casting my perils before swains
    • The end of the plain plane, explained
    Source:

    (Marshall McLuhan and a Braniff Airlines advertisement, respectively, cited by Corbett 1971 482–483 )

    Generic
    A paronomasia is a kind of
    Source

    Corbett 1971 482–483

    What is a participant role?

    Definition

    A participant role is a relation that persons have to each other with regards to their involvement in a speech event.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of participant roles:
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 68

    Crystal 1985 221

    What is a participle?

    Definition

    A participle is a lexical item, derived from a verb , that has some of the characteristics and functions of both verbs and adjectives .

    The adjectival form of the term participle is participial.

    Examples (English)

    In English, participles may be used as adjectives, and in nonfinite forms of verbs.

    Here are some examples of participles:

    • 'He ate a boiled egg for breakfast.'
    • 'I like to see smiling faces.'
    • 'You are singing a good song.'
    • 'I have exercised.'
    • 'He has eaten dinner already.'
    • 'She got a bad sunburn while playing in the pool.'
    Sources

    Crystal 1991 251

    Neufeldt 1991 985

    What is a particle?

    Definition

    A particle is a word that

    • does not belong to one of the main classes of words
    • is invariable in form, and
    • typically has grammatical or pragmatic meaning.
    Discussion

    The usage of the term particle varies. Some authorities include English prepositions and even English articles as particles.

    Examples (English)
    • to (in marking infinitives)
    • up (in set up)
    • not
    • well
    • oh
    Sources:

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 208

    Kind
    Here is a kind of particle:
    Generic
    A particle is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 222

    Mish 1991 858

    Crystal 1987 427

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 161

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 208

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 165

    Schourup 1983 1

    What is a particularized implicature?

    Definition

    A particularized implicature is a conversational implicature that is derivable only in a specific context.

    Examples (English)
  • A: What on earth has happened to the roast beef?

    B: The dog is looking very happy.

  • In the above exchange, A will likely derive the implicature "the dog ate the roast beef" from B’s statement. This is due to A’s belief that B is observing the conversational maxim of relation or relevance in the specific context of A’s question.
  • Source:

    Levinson 1983 126

  • Generic
    A particularized implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 126

    Grice 1975 56

    What is partitive case?

    Definition

    Partitive case is a case that expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part.

    This case may be found in items such as the following:

    It often has a meaning similar to the English word some.

    Discussion

    The term partitive case is used especially in studies of Finno-Ugric grammar.

    Generic
    Partitive case is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 161

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 208

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 249

    Gove 1966 1648

    Sebeok 1946 12–14

    What is a partitive numeral?

    Definition

    A partitive numeral is a numeral that expresses a fraction.

    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of partitive numerals:

    • half
    • third
    Generic
    A partitive numeral is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 149

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 165

    What is a part-whole schema?

    Definition

    A part-whole schema is an image schema involving physical or metaphorical wholes along with their parts and a configuration of the parts.

    Examples (English)
    Physical
    • The body and its parts
    Metaphorical
    • The family
    • The caste structure of India
    Generic
    A part-whole schema is a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. 1987 273–274

    What is a passing turn?

    Definition

    A passing turn is a move that

    • indicates that its speaker has nothing further to say, and
    • passes speakership to another participant.
    Example (English)
  • At the end of a telephone conversation, each of the moves in a mutual exchange of okay before saying good-byes is a passing turn.
  • Generic
    A passing turn is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 317

    What is passive voice?

    Definition

    Passive voice is a voice that indicates that the subject is the patient or recipient of the action denoted by the verb .

    Example (English)

    Here is an example of a construction in passive voice:

  • The man was nudged by a passer-by.
  • The above example contrasts with the one below, which is in active voice :

  • A passer-by nudged the man.
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of passive voice:
    Generic
    Passive voice is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 259

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 161

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 252

    Nida 1949 1689

    Mish 1991 860

    Crystal 1985 222

    What is past perfect tense?

    Definition

    Past perfect tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time in the past relative to a reference point, which itself is in the past relative to the moment of utterance .

    Example (English)
  • The “had + verb” construction expresses past perfect tense, as in the following sentence:

  • By that time, nearly everyone had left.
  • The construction had left is in the past relative to that time, which itself is in the past relative to the moment of utterance.

  • Generic
    Past perfect tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 162, 170

    Mish 1991 861

    Comrie 1985b 65–66

    What is past tense?

    Definition

    Past tense is an absolute tense that refers to a time before the moment of utterance .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of past tense:
    Generic
    Past tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 166

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 162

    Mish 1991 861

    What is a path?

    Definition

    Path is the semantic role describing the locale(s) transversed in motion or propulsion predications .

    Example (English)
  • The baby crawled across the room.
  • Generic
    A path is a kind of
    Source

    Longacre 1983 164

    What is a path schema?

    Definition

    A path schema is an image schema that

    • involves physical or metaphorical movement from place to place, and
    • consists of a starting point, a goal, and a series of intermediate points.
    Examples (English)
    Physical
    • Paths
    • Trajectories
    Metaphorical
    • The

      purpose-as-physical-goal metaphor,

      as expressed in the following sentences:

      • Tom has gone a long way toward changing his personality.
      • You have reached the midpoint of your flight training.
      • She's just starting out to make her fortune.
      • Jane was sidetracked in her search for self-understanding.

    Source:

    Johnson 1987 115

    Generic
    A path schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 113–117

    What is patient as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Patient is a semantic role that is usually the surface object of the verb in a sentence .

    Also known as:

    affected, undergoer

    Discussion

    Some linguists define the patient and affected semantic roles in slightly different ways.

    Longacre 1983 155–156 (following Chafe) defines a patient as the entity

    • predicated with a state or location
    • undergoing a change of state or location, or
    • which is possessed, acquired or exchanged.

    Larson 1984 199–203 defines the affected role as the

    • thing that is affected by an event
    • person or thing that undergoes a process, or
    • person who experiences an event.
    Examples (Longacre 1983)
    • The entity predicated with a state or location:

      • The door is open.
      • John is at home.
    • The entity undergoing a change of state or location:

      • He opened the door.

      • The door swung open.
      • He threw the ball across the yard.

      • The ball rolled off the table.
    • The entity which is possessed, acquired, or exchanged:

      • John has a new book.

      • John bought a new book.

      • John gave Mary a new book.

    Examples (Larson 1984): Affected semantic role
    • The thing that is affected by an event:

      • The dog ate the meat.

      • The tree fell on the house.

    • The person or thing that undergoes a process:

      • The water evaporated.
      • Mary became sad.
    • The person who experiences an event:

      • John smelled the smoke.
      • Mary saw the snake.
    Generic
    Patient is a kind of
    Sources

    Larson 1984 199–203

    Longacre 1983 155

    What is a perfect?

    Definition

    A perfect is a grammaticalization of the current relevance, at the moment of utterance , of an event or state that occurred prior to the moment of utterance.

    Example (English)
  • The word have in I have already given at the office indicates a perfect.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of perfects:
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 163

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 211

    Elson and Pickett 1988 28

    Comrie 1976a 12, 52–53

    Crystal 1980 224

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 190

    Mish 1991 873

    What is a perfect of persistent situation?

    Definition

    A perfect of persistent situation is a grammaticalization of the current relevance of a state or event begun prior to the moment of utterance , which is relevant because of its continuation until the moment of utterance.

    Example (English)
  • I have been waiting for three days.

    Source:

    Comrie 1976a 60

  • Generic
    A perfect of persistent situation is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1976a 60

    What is a perfect of recent past?

    Definition

    A perfect of recent past is a grammaticalization of the current relevance of a state or event, occurring before the moment of utterance, which is relevant due to its proximity in time to the moment of utterance.

    Example (English)
  • He has just arrived.

    Source:

    Comrie 1976a 60

  • Generic
    A perfect of recent past is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1976a 60–61

    What is a perfect of result?

    Definition

    A perfect of result is a grammaticalization of the current relevance of a state or event, occurring before the moment of utterance , which is relevant because of a resulting state at the moment of utterance.

    Example (English)
  • John has arrived.
  • This clause implies a resulting state of John’s being currently “here.”
  • Source:

    Comrie 1976a 56

    Generic
    A perfect of result is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1976a 56–57

    What is perfective aspect?

    Definition

    Perfective aspect is an aspect that expresses a temporal view of an event or state as a simple whole, apart from the consideration of the internal structure of the time in which it occurs.

    Examples (English)
  • He walked there.
  • This type of construction expresses a temporal view of walk distinct from those expressed in the following constructions:

  • He was walking there.
  • He used to walk there.
  • Generic
    Perfective aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Comrie 1976a 12, 18–19

    Ducrot and Todorov 1979 307

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 164

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 20

    Bybee 1985 142

    Elson and Pickett 1988 28

    Crystal 1985 224

    Mish 1991 872

    What is a performative?

    Definition

    A performative is a sentence in which the employment of a particular illocutionary force is made explicit by naming the force in the sentence itself.

    Examples (English)
  • I baptize you...
  • I bet you that...
  • Generic
    A performative is a kind of
    Sources

    Sadock and Zwicky 1985 157

    Levinson 1983 244

    Crystal 1985 225

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 180–181

    Grimes, J. 1975:71ff

    What is a performative verb?

    Definition

    A performative verb is a verb that names an illocutionary force . It is used in a performative to perform an illocutionary act having that force.

    Example (English)
  • I baptize you …
  • Sources

    Levinson 1983 244

    Crystal 1985 225

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 180–181

    What is a perlocutionary act?

    Definition

    A perlocutionary act is a speech act that produces an effect, intended or not, achieved in an addressee by a speaker’s utterance.

    Examples

    Here are some examples of perlocutionary acts:

    • Persuading
    • Convincing
    • Scaring
    • Insulting
    • Getting the addressee to do something
    Generic
    A perlocutionary act is a kind of
    Sources

    Searle 1969 25

    Crystal 1985 225

    What is perlocutionary failure?

    Definition

    Perlocutionary failure is a lack of success in achieving an intended perlocutionary effect.

    Example (English)

    Here is an example in which perlocutionary failure is alluded to:

  • I tried to warn you, but you wouldn’t listen.
  • Source

    Leech 1983 204–205

    What is a perlocutionary verb?

    Definition

    A perlocutionary verb is a verb that names a perlocutionary act .

    Example (English)
  • She tried to persuade me to accompany her.

    Source:

    Leech 1983 204

  • Source

    Leech 1983 204–205

    What are permissible mixed metaphors?

    Definition

    Permissible mixed metaphors are mixed metaphors that do not conflict with each other because they

    • serve the same purpose, and
    • exhibit a correlation with each other.
    Examples (English)
  • The sentences below illustrate the mixture of the

    argument-as-journey

    and

    argument-as-container

    metaphors. The purpose in the employment of both metaphors is to treat what can variously be called the amount of content in or degree of progress of the argument, both of which are correlated:

    • At this point our argument doesn’t have much content.
    • In what we've done so far, we have provided the core of our argument.
    • If we keep going the way we're going, we’ll fit all the facts in.

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 92, 95

  • Generic
    Permissible mixed metaphors are a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 92, 95–96

    What is permissive mood?

    Definition

    Permissive mood is a directive mood that signals the speaker’s act of giving permission.

    Example (English)

    Here is an example of a word that signals permissive mood:

  • You may have another cookie.
  • Generic
    Permissive mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 165

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 247

    What is person deixis?

    Definition

    Person deixis is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent , such as

    Discussion

    Person deixis is commonly expressed by the following kinds of constituents :

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of person deixis:
    Generic
    Person deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 62

    Crystal 1980 263

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 168

    Mish 1991 877

    What is a personal pronoun?

    Definition

    A personal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a distinction of person deixis .

    Examples (English)
    • I
    • he
    • she
    • it
    • we
    • they
    • inflected forms such as me, my, mine, etc.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of personal pronouns:
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 168

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 347

    Mish 1991 878

    What is personification?

    Definition

    Personification is an ontological metaphor in which a thing or abstraction is represented as a person.

    Example (English)
  • His religion tells him he can’t drink wine.
  • Generic
    Personification is a kind of
    Sources

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 33–34

    Mish 1991 878

    What is a pesky little particle?

    Definition

    A pesky little particle is a morpheme that is either

    • lexically contentless, or
    • behaves in a text in a manner that is anomalous with regard to its usual lexical content, and is intractable to grammatical analysis.

    Therefore, it usually has a discourse or pragmatic function.

    Examples

    Here are examples of English pesky particles, when used to relate more than one sentence:

    • now
    • either
    • moreover
    Sources

    J. Grimes 1975 :93–94

    What is a phone?

    Definition

    A phone is an unanalyzed sound of a language. It is the smallest identifiable unit found in a stream of speech that is able to be transcribed with an

    IPA

    symbol.

    See also
    • What is a phone chart?

    • Comparison of morpheme-morph-allomorph and phoneme-phone-allophone

    What is a phoneme?

    Definition

    A phoneme is the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language.

    Discussion

    Phonologists have differing views of the phoneme. Following are the two major views considered here:

    • In the American structuralist tradition, a phoneme is defined according to its allophones and environments .
    • In the generative tradition, a phoneme is defined as a set of distinctive features.
    Comparison

    Here is a chart that compares phones and phonemes:

    A phone is …

    A phoneme is …

    One of many possible sounds in the languages of the world.

    A contrastive unit in the sound system of a particular language.

    The smallest identifiable unit found in a stream of speech.

    A minimal unit that serves to distinguish between meanings of words.

    Pronounced in a defined way.

    Pronounced in one or more ways, depending on the number of allophones.

    Represented between brackets by convention.

    Example:

    [b], [j], [o]

    Represented between slashes by convention.

    Example:

    /b/, /j/, /o/

    Examples (English): Minimal pair

    Here are examples of the phonemes /r/ and /l/ occurring in a minimal pair :

    • rip
    • lip

    The phones [r] and [l] contrast in identical environments and are considered to be separate phonemes. The phonemes /r/ and /l/ serve to distinguish the word rip from the word lip.

    Examples (English): Distinctive features

    Here are examples of the English phonemes /p/ and /i/ specified as sets of distinctive features:

    /p/ /i/

    -syllabic +consonantal -sonorant +anterior -coronal -voice -continuant -nasal +syllabic -consonantal +sonorant +high -low -back -round +ATR -nasal

    See also
    Sources

    Burquest and Payne 1993

    Hyman 1975

    What is a phonetically similar segment?

    Definition

    Phonetically similar segments are two or more sounds which share phonetic features and are frequently found as variants of a single phonological unit in a language.

    Discussion

    Most phonetically similar segments are adjacent to each other in a

    phone chart

    , and differ only slightly in one or two articulatory features.

    Examples

    Here is a table that gives examples of phonetically similar segments and the difference between the given segments.

    The phonetically similar segments …

    Differ in …

    [p] and [b]

    voicing.

    [p] and [f]

    place of articulation and manner of articulation.

    [l] and [r]

    manner of articulation.

    [p] and [t]

    place of articulation.

    Source

    Rensch 1991 29

    What is phonetics?

    Definition

    Phonetics is the study of human speech sounds.

    Branches

    Phonetics is divided into three branches:

    • Articulatory phonetics

      The study of

      how speech sounds are produced

      by the human vocal apparatus.

    • Acoustic phonetics

      The study of the sound waves made by the human vocal organs for communication.

    • Auditory phonetics

      The study of how speech sounds are perceived by the ear, auditory nerve, and brain.

    Source

    Crystal 1985 339

    What is phonological hierarchy?

    Definition

    Phonological hierarchy is a ranking that organizes a stream of speech into levels of ascending size and complexity.

    Here are the levels of the phonological hierarchy:

    Units at one level of the hierarchy cluster together to form units of the next higher level. At each level, speech can be segmented into units that have similar kinds of phonetic features.

    Source

    Rensch 1991

    What is phonological symmetry?

    Definition

    Phonological symmetry is the even distribution of phonemes throughout the articulatory possibilities of a given language.

    Discussion

    The inventory of sounds in a given language tends to be symmetrical. Sounds tend to be spread out evenly throughout the articulatory possibilities of a language.

    Function

    The symmetrical patterning of phonemes in language makes the following easier:

    • Perception

      Differences between sounds are most easily perceived when

      • sounds are distributed uniformly in the articulatory space (place and manner of articulation), and
      • the extremes of articulatory space are used (particularly for vowels).
    • Production

      It is more efficient to use the same place of articulation or manner of articulation repeatedly.

    Example (Spanish): Symmetrical vowel system

    Here is an example of a symmetrical vowel system:

    Spanish is an example of a symmetrical five vowel system. The five vowel system is the most common among languages of the world.

    Example: Asymmetrical vowel system

    Here is an example of an asymmetrical vowel system that is not known to exist:

    Instances: Consonant symmetry

    Consonant systems are symmetrical in their

    • points of articulation, and
    • manners of articulation.

    A symmetrical consonant system is one in which the following occur:

    • Phones with the same points of articulation are repeated using several different manners of articulation.

      Example:

      For each voiceless plosive there is a corresponding voiced plosive (for example, [t] and [d]).

    • Phones with the same manners of articulation are repeated using several different points of articulation.

      Example:

      Nasal consonants occur at some of the same points of articulation as other plosives, fricatives, or affricates (for example, [m], [n], [N])

  • Complex consonants illustrate symmetry in both place and manner of articulation. For each complex consonant, a language tends to have a corresponding simple consonant at the same point of articulation.
  • Instances: Vowel symmetry

    The following three parameters define the articulatory space for vowel sounds:

    • Tongue height
    • Point of articulation
    • Rounding

    A symmetrical vowel system is one in which vowels are near the extremes of the articulatory space available for the sounds in a given language.

    Symmetrical systems tend to be arranged in a “V-shaped” formation on a phone chart.

    See also

    What is a phonological universal?

    Definition

    A phonological universal is a common tendency found in the phonological systems of many languages.

    Discussion

    Many phonological universals are based on principles of phonological symmetry .

    Phonological universals are only tendencies. Phonological systems which do not conform to universals are possible, but not likely.

    Examples: Vowel systems

    Here are some phonological universals concerning vowel systems:

    Symmetry
    • Vowel systems tend to be symmetrical.
    • The minimal vowel system includes /i a u/. All known languages are said to have these three vowels, or slight variations of them.
    Rounding
    • Back vowels tend to be rounded.
    • Front vowels tend to be unrounded.

    A functional explanation for these vowel universals is that, in its vowel system, a language is likely to use those vowels that are the most perceptually different from one another. This makes it easier for the listener to distinguish between the vowels in the system.

    Examples: Consonant systems

    Here are some phonological universals concerning consonant systems:

    Symmetry
    • Consonant systems tend to be symmetrical.
  • A correlation between point of articulation and voicing of obstruents shows up when there are asymmetries in a consonant inventory.

    • A language is less likely to have voiceless labial obstruents than any other voiceless obstruents.
    • A language is less likely to have voiced velar obstruents than any other voiced obstruents.
  • All languages are expected to have at least the following consonant phonemes:

    • Voiceless plosives (stops)
    • Nasals
    • A grooved fricative (for example, /s/)
    • A laryngeal glide (usually /h/)
  • Voicing
    • Most obstruents are voiceless
    • Most sonorants are voiced.
    Example: Nasality

    Here are some phonological universals concerning nasality, a process that commonly interacts with both consonants and vowels:

    Consonants
    • Nearly all languages have nasal consonants.
    Vowels
    • Nasal vowels are usually the exact counterparts of the oral vowels.
    • If a language has fewer nasal vowels than oral, it is usually the mid nasal vowels that are missing.
    Sources

    Burquest and Payne 1993 34–39

    What is phonology?

    Definition

    Phonology is the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages.

    Discussion

    The phonological system of a language includes

    • an inventory of sounds and their features, and
    • rules which specify how sounds interact with each other.

    Phonology is just one of several aspects of language. It is related to other aspects such as phonetics, morphology, syntax, and pragmatics.

    Here is an illustration that shows the place of phonology in an interacting hierarchy of levels in linguistics:

    Comparison: Phonology and phonetics

    Phonetics …

    Phonology …

    Is the basis for phonological analysis.

    Is the basis for further work in morphology, syntax, discourse, and orthography design.

    Analyzes the production of all human speech sounds, regardless of language.

    Analyzes the sound patterns of a particular language by

    • determining which phonetic sounds are significant, and
    • explaining how these sounds are interpreted by the native speaker.
    Models of phonology

    Different models of phonology contribute to our knowledge of phonological representations and processes:

    • In classical phonemics, phonemes and their possible combinations are central.
    • In standard generative phonology , distinctive features are central. A stream of speech is portrayed as linear sequence of discrete sound-segments. Each segment is composed of simultaneously occurring features.
    • In non-linear models of phonology, a stream of speech is represented as multidimensional, not simply as a linear sequence of sound segments. These non-linear models grew out of generative phonology:

    What is a phrasal verb?

    Definition

    A phrasal verb is a combination of a lexical verb and a verbal particle that forms a single semantic and syntactic unit.

    Example (English)
  • The item give up is a phrasal verb, as in the following:

    • He gave up smoking.
    • He gave smoking up.
  • Example (Akan)

    The item gyee ... so ‘answered’ is a phrasal verb, as in the following:

    Kofi gyee Kwame so

    Kofi received Kwame on

    ‘Kofi answered Kwame.’

    Source:

    Schachter 1985 45

    Generic
    A phrasal verb is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 232

    Schachter 1985 45–46

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 45

    What is a phrase?

    Definition

    A phrase is a syntactic structure that consists of more than one word but lacks the subject - predicate organization of a clause .

    Discussion

    Allowance may be made on a theory-specific basis for single-word, minimal instances of phrases.

    Example:

    A noun as a minimal instance of a noun phrase .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of phrases:
    Generic
    A phrase is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 232–233

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 169

    Pike and Pike 1982 453

    Mish 1991 886

    What is pitch?

    Definition

    Pitch is the rate of vibration of the vocal folds.

    What is place deixis?

    Definition

    Place deixis is deictic reference to a location relative to the location of a participant in the speech event, typically the speaker.

    Examples (English)
    • this (way)
    • that (direction)
    • here
    • there
    Source:

    Levinson 1983 62

    Kind
    Here is a kind of place deixis:
    Generic
    Place deixis is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 62

    What is place of articulation?

    Definition

    Place of articulation is the relationship between the active and passive articulators as they shape or impede the airstream.

    What is plural number?

    Definition

    Plural number is number that expresses reference to a quantity greater than that expressed by the largest specific number category in a language, such as "more than one" in English, and "more than two" in some other languages.

    Example (English)

    Here is an example of plural number:

  • The suffix -s expresses plural number, as in the word beggars.
  • Generic
    A plural number is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 245

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 178

    Crystal 1987 428

    Mish 1991 906

    What is polarity?

    Definition

    Polarity is a grammatical category that distinguishes affirmative and negative.

    Generic
    Polarity is a kind of
    Sources

    Schachter 1985 10

    Talmy 1985 131

    What is politeness?

    Definition

    Politeness is social deixis that expresses a low degree of solidarity between the speaker and the addressee .

    Examples (German, French)
  • Some uses of the second person pronouns Sie in German and vous in French signal politeness.

    Source:

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 179

  • Generic
    Politeness is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 179

    Brown, R. and Gilman 1960 253

    What is a polysynthetic language?

    Definition

    A polysynthetic language is a language in which words tend to consist of several morphemes.

    Example (Yup’ik Inuit)
  • tuntussuqatarniksaitengqiggtuq
  • tuntu -ssur -qatar -ni -ksaite -ngqiggte -uq
  • reindeer -hunt -FUT -say -NEG -again -3SG:IND
  • 'He had not yet said again that he was going to hunt reindeer.'
  • Source:

    Eliza Orr, cited by Payne, T. 1997a 27–28

    Kinds

    Here are the two kinds of polysynthetic languages:

    Contrast

    The opposite of a highly polysynthetic language is a highly isolating language.

    What is a portmanteau morph?

    Definition

    A portmanteau morph is a single morph that is analyzed as representing two underlying morphemes .

    Example (French)

    au ‘to (him)’ from a ‘to’ + le ‘masc. art’

    du ‘of (him)’ from de ‘of’ + le ‘masc. art’

    Example (Burmese)

    ne? ‘your’ from ne) ‘you’ + ?"@? poss.mkr.

    Tu? ‘his’ from Tu$ ‘he’ + ?"@? poss.mkr.

    Source:

    Thomas 1983 9

    Generic
    A portmanteau morph is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 237

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 180

    What is a position?

    Definition

    A position is an abstract place of one turn relative to another turn to which it is functionally related.

    The place does not vary with the number or size of any insertion sequences that come between these functionally related turns.

    Examples (English)
  • In both of the following two exchanges, B’s response Okay is in second position relative to A’s request. Its position does not vary in this relationship, even though it is in second turn location in the first exchange and in fourth turn location in the second exchange:
  • A: Please close the window.
  • B: Okay.
  • A: Please close the window.
  • B: All the way?
  • A: Yeah.
  • B: Okay.
  • Source

    Levinson 1983 348

    What is a possessive noun?

    Definition

    A possessive noun is a noun that expresses possession.

    Source

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 172

    What is a possessive pronoun?

    Definition

    A possessive pronoun is a pronoun that expresses ownership and relationships like ownership, such as

    • kinship, and
    • other forms of association.
    Examples (English)
    • my
    • mine
    Generic
    A possessive pronoun is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 180

    Mish 1991 918

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 361

    Crystal 1980 248

    What is possibility?

    Definition

    Possibility is a degree of contingency in modality that in

    Generic
    Possibility is a kind of
    Sources

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 242, 246

    Lyons 1977b 791

    Crystal 1985 12

    What is post-hodiernal future tense?

    Definition

    Post-hodiernal future tense is a future tense that refers to a time, in relation to the moment of utterance , after the span that is culturally defined as "today."

    Generic
    A post-hodiernal future tense is a kind of
    Source

    Dahl 1985 125–126

    What is a postposition?

    Definition

    A postposition is an adposition that occurs after its complement .

    Examples (Japanese)
  • In the following sentence, the words and o ga, ni, are postpositions:

    John ga Mary ni hon o yatta
    John NOMINATIVE Mary DATIVE book ACCUSATIVE gave
    ‘John gave Mary a book.’
    Source:

    Kuno 1973 4–5

  • Generic
    A postposition is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 277

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 181

    Kuno 1973 4–5

    What is a postpositional phrase?

    Definition

    A postpositional phrase is an adpositional phrase in which a postposition is the head . The postposition follows its complement .

    The phrase is an exocentric construction that functions as an adjectival or adverbial modifier. The complement to the postposition is typically one of the following:

    Generic
    A postpositional phrase is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1989 91

    What is a post-sequence?

    Definition

    A post-sequence is a sequence that is subordinate to and follows another sequence. It remedies some unresolved matter relating to the dominant sequence.

    Example (English)
  • The third through fifth turns of the following exchange are a post-sequence. They resolve some doubt concerning the fulfillment of the sincerity conditions in the first sequence’s acceptance of the request of the first turn:

  • A: Would you mind dropping this off for me on your way to work?
  • B: Yeah, I guess so.
  • A: ’Cause I’m gonna be late getting off because I have to iron something to wear.
  • B: Well, I will if it’s not too crowded.
  • A: O.K.

  • Source:

    McLaughlin 1984 185

  • Generic
    A post-sequence is a kind of
    Source

    McLaughlin 1984 184–185

    What is a potential implicature?

    Definition

    A potential implicature is an implicature that would arise from any of the components of a given utterance if that component were uttered in some linguistic or extralinguistic context, whether or not the implicature is an actual implicature of the given utterance.

    Examples (English)
  • The sentence I think that some went has two potential implicatures:

    Adapted from:

    Levinson 1983 134

  • Generic
    A potential implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 133–134

    Gazdar 1979 55

    What is a potential presupposition?

    Definition

    A potential presupposition is a presupposition that is triggered by some part of an utterance (such as a subordinate clause ) taken in isolation, but that may or may not be a presupposition of the whole utterance.

    Example (English)
  • The utterance John says that the king of France is bald has two potential presuppositions:

    1. There is someone identified as John.
    2. There is a king of France.
  • Generic
    A potential presupposition is a kind of
    Sources

    Gazdar 1979 124

    What is pragmatics?

    Definition

    Pragmatics is the study of the aspects of meaning and language use that are dependent on the speaker , the addressee and other features of the context of utterance , such as the following:

    Generic
    Pragmatics is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 5–34

    Crystal 1985 240

    Leech 1983 2, 5–6

    What is a preannouncement?

    Definition

    A preannouncement is a presequence for an announcement of news.

    It consists of a turn in which the announcing participant checks on the newsworthiness of the item, and may also consist of a turn in which the recipient allows or disallows the newsworthiness of the item before beginning a request-acceptance or question-answer sequence to elicit the announcement.

    Example (English)
  • The first turn in the following exchange is a preannouncement:

  • A: Oh, guess what.
  • B: What?
  • A: Professor Deelies put another book on his order.
  • Adapted from:

    Terasaki 1976 36 cited by Levinson 1983 349

  • Generic
    A preannouncement is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 349–350

    Terasaki 1976 36

    What is a prearrangement?

    Definition

    A prearrangement is a presequence in which an attempt is made to arrange for later contact, as by means of a question-answer sequence determining the availability of one of the participants.

    Discussion

    Prearrangements are frequently indistinguishable from preinvitations except in context.

    Example (English)
  • In the following exchange, the prearrangement is expressed by means of a question-answer sequence determining the availability of one of the participants:

  • A: Erm, what are you doing today?
  • B: Er, well, I’m supervising at quarter past.
  • A: Er, yuh, why don't, er, would you like to come by after that?
  • B: I can't, I'm afraid, no.

  • Adapted from:

    Levinson 1983 347

  • Generic
    A prearrangement is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 347–348

    What is the precategorial class?

    Definition

    The precategorial class is a category for a lexical item that needs more analysis before it can be assigned a more specific category in the Parts of Speech authority list.

    What is precative mood?

    Definition

    Precative mood is a directive mood that signals that the utterance is a request.

    Generic
    Precative mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 173

    Palmer 1986 10

    What is a preclosing?

    Definition

    A preclosing is a presequence that signals the end of a conversation is near. It provides opportunity for the discussion of any additional remaining topic before the participants proceed with the closing sequence.

    Example (English)
  • The okays in the following exchange express a preclosing:

  • A: Okay?
  • B: Okay.
  • A: Bye.
  • B: Bye.

    Source:

    Levinson 1983 325

  • Generic
    A preclosing is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 325

    What is a predicate?

    Definition

    A predicate is the portion of a clause , excluding the subject , that expresses something about the subject.

    Also known as:

    predicator

    Example (English)
  • The book is on the table.
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of predicate:
    Generic
    A predicate is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 280

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 182

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 173

    Pike and Pike 1982 40

    Mish 1991 926

    Crystal 1985 241–242

    What is a predicate adjective?

    Definition

    A predicate adjective is an adjective that is used to predicate an attribute of the subject .

    Examples (English)
    • Roses are red.
    • Noses often become red.
    Generic
    A predicate adjective is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 173

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 182

    Mish 1991 926

    What is a predicate noun?

    Definition

    A predicate noun is a noun (or noun phrase ) that is used to predicate a description or identification of the subject .

    Examples (English)
    • He is a good man.
    • He became a mathematician.
    Generic
    A predicate noun is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 174

    Mish 1991 926–927

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 182

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 737, 742

    What is a predicator?

    Definition

    A predicator is the verb in its functional relation to the clause . It is comparable to the grammatical relations of subject and object .

    Discussion

    The term predicator can be used to refer to the verbal element in Subject-Ver b-Object constructions, that is, Subject-Predicator-Object. This avoids the confusion of using verb to refer to both a form and a function.

    Generic
    A predicator is a kind of
    Source

    Crystal 1985 241–242

    What is predictable information?

    Definition

    Predictable information is given information that the speaker assumes can be or could have been predicted by the addressee to occur in a particular position in the sentence .

    Example
  • Ellipsed material in utterances is predictable information.
  • Generic
    Predictable information is a kind of
    Source

    Prince 1981 226, 232

    What is predictive future tense?

    Definition

    Predictive future tense is a future tense, used in predictions, that does not express intention.

    Generic
    Predictive future tense is a kind of
    Source

    Dahl 1985 110–111

    What is a preface?

    Definition

    A preface is an audible device, such as one of the following, used within a turn to put off a dispreferred response :

    • Items like well
    • Token agreement
    • Indications of appreciation, apology, or qualification
    • Self-repair
    Examples (English)
  • There are prefaces of token agreement, appreciation, self-repair, and so forth in the following sentence:

  • Um, yes, thanks, but you--I mean, I’ll just do it myself.
  • Generic
    A preface is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 334–336

    What is a preferred second part?

    Definition

    A preferred second part is a second part of an adjacency pair that

    Discussion

    Preferred second parts are frequently indistinguishable from prearrangements except by context.

    Examples
    • An acceptance in response to a request, offer, or invitation
    • An agreement in response to an assessment
    • An expected answer in response to a question
    • A denial in response to blame
    Generic
    A preferred second part is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 332–336

    What is a prefix?

    Definition

    A prefix is an affix that is joined before a root or stem .

    Example (English)

    The prefix un- attaches to the front of the stem selfish to form the word unselfish.

    Generic
    A prefix is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 281

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 182

    Mish 1991 927

    What is prefixation?

    Definition

    Prefixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is attached to the front of a root or stem .

    The kind of affix involved in this process is called a prefix .

    Example (English)

    The prefix un- attaches to the front of the stem selfish to form the word unselfish.

    Generic

    What is prehesternal past tense?

    Definition

    Prehesternal past tense is a past tense that refers to a time in some span before that of an opposing hesternal past tense .

    Generic
    Prehesternal past tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 87–88

    What is prehodiernal past tense?

    Definition

    Prehodiernal past tense is a past tense that refers to a time in some span before that of a contrasting hodiernal past tense .

    Generic
    Prehodiernal past tense is a kind of
    Source

    Dahl 1985 125–126

    What is a preinvitation?

    Definition

    A preinvitation is a presequence that is likely to be understood by the respondent as a signal of a coming invitation. The coming invitation may be a question-answer sequence concerning the availability of the participant to be invited.

    Example (English)
  • The second and third turns of the following exchange are a preinvitation:

  • A: Hi, John.
  • B: Say, what’re you doing?
  • A: Well we’re going out. Why?
  • B: Oh, I was just gonna say come over here this evening.
  • Adapted from:

    Atkinson and Drew 1979 143, cited by Levinson 1983 346

  • Generic
    A preinvitation is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 346

    Atkinson and Drew 1979 143

    What is prenasalization?

    Definition

    Prenasalization is the addition of a short nasal onset to a plosive or affricate at the same place of articulation.

    What is a preparatory condition?

    Definition

    A preparatory condition is a state of affairs that

    • must be presupposed by the speaker in employing a particular illocutionary force , and
    • is a necessary condition for the nondefective employment of that force

    Examples (English)
    • The force of making a promise, in which the speaker presupposes his or her own capability of performing the promised action
    • The distinction between promising and threatening

      The act of promising presupposes the addressee’s concern that the promised action be taken, whereas the act of threatening presupposes some harm in the action.

    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 16–18

    What is a preposition?

    Definition

    A preposition is an adposition that occurs before its complement .

    Examples (English)
    • to
    • with
    • from
    Generic
    A preposition is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 282

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 182–183

    Mish 1991 929

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 657–659

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 227

    What is a prepositional phrase?

    Definition

    A prepositional phrase is an adpositional phrase in which a preposition is the head . The preposition precedes its complement .

    The phrase is an exocentric construction that functions as an adjectival or adverbial modifier. The complement to the preposition is typically one of the following:

    Examples (English)
    • on the bus
    • to town
    • on the other hand
    Generic
    A prepositional phrase is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 182–183

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 63, 657

    Crystal 1980 282

    What is a prerequest?

    Definition

    A prerequest is a presequence that prefigures a request, possibly by ascertaining the ability of the respondent to satisfy the coming request.

    Example (English)
  • The first two turns of the following exchange are a prerequest:

  • A: Do you have blackberry jam?
  • B: Yes.
  • A: Okay. Can I have half a pint then?
  • B: Sure.
  • Adapted from:

    Merritt 1976 324, cited by Levinson 1983 347

  • Generic
    A prerequest is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 347

    Merritt 1976 324

    What is present tense?

    Definition

    Present tense is an absolute tense that refers to the moment of utterance . It often refers to events or states that do not merely coincide with the moment of utterance, such as those that are

    • continuous
    • habitual, or
    • lawlike.
    Generic
    Present tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 183

    Comrie 1985b 36–40

    Mish 1991 930

    What is a presequence?

    Definition

    Here are two senses of presequence:

    1. A presequence is a sequence that

      • is used to introduce a conversational action, and
      • often prefigures a particular sort of action and secures the addressee 's cooperation.
    2. A presequence is the specific turn that has the function of prefiguring the coming action.
    Examples (English)
    • A preinvitational turn, such as are you doing anything this weekend?
    • A summons-answer sequence, such as the following exchange:

    • A: John?
    • B: Yes, honey?
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of presequences:
    Generic
    A presequence is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 345–346

    What is a prespan-end relation?

    Definition

    A prespan-end relation is a temporal relation in which an event or state is expressed as marking the termination of a durative event or state.

    Example (English)

    Here is an example of a word that signals a prespan-end relation:

  • Stay on duty until you are relieved.
  • Generic
    A prespan-end relation is a kind of
    Source

    Hollenbach 1975 16

    What is a presupposition?

    Definition

    A presupposition is background belief, relating to an utterance , that

    • must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context
    • generally will remain a necessary assumption whether the utterance is placed in the form of an assertion, denial, or question, and
    • can generally be associated with a specific lexical item or grammatical feature (presupposition trigger) in the utterance.
    Examples (English)
  • The utterance John regrets that he stopped doing linguistics before he left Cambridge has the following presuppositions:

    • There is someone uniquely identifiable to speaker and addressee as John.
    • John stopped doing linguistics before he left Cambridge.
    • John was doing linguistics before he left Cambridge.
    • John left Cambridge.
    • John had been at Cambridge.
    Source:

    Levinson 1983 179–180

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of presuppositions:
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 283

    Talmy 1985 79–80

    Caton 1981 97–98

    Levinson 1983 179–181, 204–205, 216–217

    What is a presupposition denial?

    Definition

    A presupposition denial is a noncontradictory negation of a presupposition in a clause by an assertion in another clause.

    Example (English)
  • In the utterance John doesn’t regret doing a useless Ph.D., because, in fact, he never did do one, the presupposition "John did a useless Ph.D." is denied by the second clause.
  • Source

    Levinson 1983 194–195

    What is a presupposition suspension?

    Definition

    A presupposition suspension is the speaker 's removal of a previously implied commitment to a presupposition without the denial of it.

    Example (English)
  • In the utterance John didn’t cheat again, if indeed he ever did, the if clause suspends the presupposition that John ever cheated.
  • Source:

    Levinson 1983 195

    Sources

    Levinson 1983 195

    Horn 1972

    What is a presupposition trigger?

    Definition

    A presupposition trigger is a construction or item that signals the existence of a presupposition in an utterance .

    Examples (English)

    Both positive and negative forms are presented, showing that the presuppositions are constant under negation:

    • Definite descriptions

      In John saw/didn't see the man with two heads, the definite description the man with two heads triggers the presupposition "There exists a man with two heads." (The unbelievability of the presupposition is what makes the positive utterance unbelievable and the negative one odd.)

    • Factive verbs

      In John realized/didn't realize that he was in debt, both realize and didn't realize that trigger the presupposition "John was in debt."

      Other factives are

      • (it) be odd that
      • be sorry/proud/indifferent/glad/sad that
      • know that , and
      • regret that.
    • Implicative verbs

      In John managed/didn't manage to open the door, both managed/didn't manage to trigger the presupposition "tried to," as in "John tried to open the door."

      Other implicative verbs are

      • avoided (X-ing), which presupposes "was expected to"
      • forgot to, which presupposes "ought to have"
      • happened to, which presupposes "didn’t plan/intend to," and
      • intended to.
    • Change of state verbs

      In Kissinger continued/didn’t continue to rule the world, both continued/didn’t continue to trigger the presupposition "had been," as in "Kissinger had been ruling the world."

      Other change of state verbs are

      • arrive
      • begin
      • come
      • enter
      • go
      • leave
      • stop, and
      • take (X from Y), which presupposes "X was at/in/with Y."
    • Expressions of repetition

      In Carter returned/didn’t return to power, both returned/didn’t return trigger the presupposition "Carter held power before."

      Other such expressions are

      • again
      • another time
      • anymore
      • come back
      • repeat, and
      • restore.
    • Expressions of temporal relations

      In while Chomsky was revolutionizing linguistics, the rest of social science was/wasn’t asleep, the clause introduced by while triggers the presupposition "Chomsky was revolutionizing linguistics."

      Other such conjunctions triggering presuppositions are

      • after
      • as
      • before
      • during
      • since, and
      • whenever.
    • Cleft sentences

      • In it was/wasn’t Henry that kissed Rosie, the cleft structure triggers the presupposition "someone kissed Rosie."
      • The pseudocleft structure in what John lost was his wallet triggers the presupposition "John lost something."
    • Stressed constituents

      In John did/didn’t compete in the OLYMPICS, the stressed constituent triggers the presupposition "John did compete somewhere."

    • Returned actions

      In Adolph called Marianne a Valkyrie, and she complimented him back/in return, too, both back/in return, too trigger the presupposition "to call Marianne a Valkyrie is to compliment her."

    • Comparisons

      In Carol is/isn’t a better linguist than Barbara, the comparison triggers the presupposition "Barbara is a linguist."

    • Counterfactual conditions

      In if the notice had only said ‘mine-field’ in English as well as Welsh, we would/would never have lost poor Llewellyn, the form of the condition triggers the presupposition "The notice didn’t say mine-field in English."

    • Questions

      • Questions presenting alternatives tend to trigger a presupposition of the truth of one of the alternatives. The utterance is Newcastle in England or in Australia? triggers the presupposition "Newcastle is either in England or in Australia."
      • Questions containing interrogative pro-forms tend to trigger a corresponding presupposition containing an indefinite pro-form. The utterance who is the professor of linguistics at MIT? triggers the presupposition "someone is the professor of linguistics at MIT."
    Source:

    Compiled by Karttunen No date and presented by Levinson 1983 181–184

    Sources

    Levinson 1983 181–184

    Karttunen No date

    What is a preterit?

    Definition

    A preterit, in traditional terminology, is a simple past tense not marked for aspect or modality .

    Generic
    A preterit is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 184

    Crystal 1987 428

    Mish 1991 932

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 209

    What is a previousness relation?

    Definition

    A previousness relation is a temporal relation in which the event or state of a latter-expressed proposition is communicated to have occurred before the event or state of a prior-expressed proposition.

    Example (English)
  • The word previously indicates a previousness relation as in he weighed in at 163 pounds. Previously, he had only registered 159.
  • Generic
    A previousness relation is a kind of
    Source

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 262

    What is a primary sense?

    Definition

    A primary sense is the core, basic, literal meaning of a lexeme .

    Discussion

    A primary sense is generally the first meaning that comes to mind for most people when a lexeme is uttered alone. Usually it refers to an actual physical thing, an action, or a characteristic of a referent.

    Example: English

    The word jungle has a primary sense meaning "land covered with dense growth of trees, tall vegetation, and vines, typically in tropical regions, and inhabited by predatory animals".

    This is the meaning of jungle that generally first comes to a person's mind. It refers to an actual physical thing.

    What is a pro-adjective?

    Definition

    A pro-adjective is a pro-form that substitutes for an adjective or adjective phrase .

    Example (French)
  • The word le is a pro-adjective, as in the following:

    Jean est grand mais je ne le suis pas
    Jean is tall but I NEG PRO_ADJ am not
    ‘Jean is tall, but I’m not.’
  • Source:

    Schachter 1985 34

    Generic
    A pro-adjective is a kind of
    Source

    Schachter 1985 34

    What is a pro-adverb?

    Definition

    A pro-adverb is a pro-form that substitutes for an adverb or other expression having an adverbial function.

    Example (English)
  • If you’ll look on the table, you’ll find the book there.
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of pro-adverb:
    Generic
    A pro-adverb is a kind of
    Source

    Schachter 1985 34

    What is a procedural discourse?

    Definition

    A procedural discourse is a discourse that

    • is used to tell the addressee how to do something
    • presents a series of steps leading to a goal, and
    • centers on events that are contingent one on another, rather than focusing on the performer of the events.
    Features

    Here are some features of procedural text:

    • The steps of the procedure are often organized chronologically.
    • First or second person pronoun forms are usually used.
    • Text is not oriented around a specific agent.
    Examples
    • Directions on how to get somewhere
    • Instructions on how to make something
    • Recipes
    Parts
    • Problem or need
    • Preparatory procedures
    • Main or efficient procedures
    • Concluding, often utilization procedures
    Generic
    A procedural discourse is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1990 2

    Peck 1981 286

    Larson 1984 366, 369

    Longacre 1983 3, 5, 9, 38

    What is a procedural text?

    Definition

    A procedural text is a text which gives instructions on how to do something.

    Sources

    Larson 1984 366

    Longacre 1983 5

    What is a proclitic?

    Definition

    A proclitic is a clitic that precedes the word to which it is phonologically joined.

    Example (English)
  • The English article the, when unstressed and with a reduced vowel, is a proclitic, as in the following:

  • the house
  • Adapted from:

    Crystal 1980 64

  • Sources

    Crystal 1980 64

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 185

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 176

    Mish 1991 938

    What is a productive affix?

    Definition

    A productive affix is a derivational affix that is currently used in the derivation of new words.

    Example (English)
  • The prefix non- is a productive affix, as demonstrated in the following new coinage:
  • the only non-upended chair in the ransacked room
  • Generic
    A productive affix is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 176

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 185

    Mish 1991 938

    What is a pro-form?

    Definition

    A pro-form is a word, substituting for other words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context.

    Examples (English)
    • Jim cooks better than she does.
    • He did so.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of pro-forms:
    Generic
    A pro-form is a kind of
    Sources

    Schachter 1985 24–25

    Crystal 1985 247

    What is progressive aspect?

    Definition

    Progressive aspect is a continuous aspect that expresses processes, not states.

    Example (English)
  • The be + -ing construction indicates progressive aspect. Its characteristic of expressing processes rather than states can be seen in the following examples:

  • Fred is silly.
  • Fred is being silly.
  • The first example is stative; the second is processual and paraphrasable as "Fred is acting in a silly manner."

  • Source:

    Comrie 1976a 36

    Generic
    Progressive aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985 231

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 215

    Comrie 1976a 12, 33–36

    Crystal 1987 428

    Mish 1991 940

    What is prohibitive mood?

    Definition

    Prohibitive mood is a directive mood that signals a prohibition. It is distinguished by

    • the use of a negated imperative sentence that employs a negative marker distinct from that used in declarative sentences, or
    • a verb form different from that of the imperative.
    Example (Greenlandic Eskimo)

    Here is an example of prohibitive mood, which is signaled by the negative infinitive:

    una attornagu
    this disturb_NEGATIVE_INFINITIVE_3SINGULAR
    ‘Do not disturb this.’
    Source:

    Sadock and Zwicky 1985 176

    Generic
    Prohibitive mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 176, 228

    Bybee 1985 173

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 185

    Sadock and Zwicky 1985 175–176

    What is prolative case?

    Definition

    Prolative case is a case that expresses motion along or by the referent of the noun it marks.

    Examples (Finnish)
  • In the following examples, the suffix expresses prolative case: -tse

    • Laiva kulki englannin sivuitse ‘The boat went by the coast of England.’
    • Isani aina matkusti maitse ‘My father always travelled by land.’
  • Source:

    Sebeok 1946 14

    Generic
    Prolative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 176–177

    Sebeok 1946 7, 14

    Merlan 1982 57–59, 79

    Andrews, A. 1985 92–93

    Gove 1966 1683

    What is a pronominal?

    Definition

    A pronominal is a phrase that functions as a pronoun .

    Note:

    The term pronominal is also used as an adjective to mean "of, constituting, or resembling a pronoun."

    Example (English)
  • That’s not the one I wanted
  • Source:

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 186

    Generic
    A pronominal is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 186

    Mish 1991 942

    What is a pronoun?

    Definition

    A pronoun is a pro-form which functions like a noun and substitutes for a noun or noun phrase .

    Discussion

    A language may have several classes of pronouns.

    Features

    Here are some features found in various pronominal systems:

    • Person (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th)
    • Number (singular, duo, trio, quadral and plural)
    • Inclusion (inclusive, exclusive)
    • Gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter)
    • Semantic class
    • Morphological class
    • Grammatical relation (subject, object; ergative, absolutive…)
    • Semantic role (agent, patient…)
    • Usage (formal or informal, regular or honorific)
    • Spatial and temporal position
    Examples (English)
    • Personal pronouns (I, they)
    • Reflexive pronouns (herself)
    • Demonstrative pronouns (this)
    • Interrogative pronouns (who, which) in questions)
    • Relative pronouns (who, which in relative clauses)
    Generic
    A pronoun is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 287

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 186

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 335

    Mish 1991 942

    What is a proper noun?

    Definition

    A proper noun is a noun that is the name of a specific individual, place, or object.

    Examples (English)
    • Joseph
    • New York City
    • Empire State Building
    Sources

    Neufeldt 1991 1078

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 177

    What is a proportional relation?

    Definition

    A proportional relation is a logical relation that establishes a range of conditional relations that together involve direct or inverse correlation.

    Examples (English)
    • The more I talk, the less you listen.
    • As Maine goes, so goes the nation.

      This utterance means that if Maine goes [votes] Republican, the U.S. goes Republican, and if Maine goes Democratic, the U.S. goes Democratic

    Source:

    Longacre 1985 105

    Generic
    A proportional relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1983 105–106

    Trail 1973b 18–19

    What is a proposition?

    Definition

    A proposition is that part of the meaning of a clause or sentence that is constant, despite changes in such things as the voice or illocutionary force of the clause.

    A proposition may be related to other units of its kind through interpropositional relations , such as temporal relations and logical relations .

    Discussion

    The meaning of the term proposition is extended by some analysts to include the meaning content of units within the clause.

    Example:

    The tall, stately building fell is said to express propositions corresponding to the following:

    • "The building is tall."
    • "The building is stately."
    • "The building fell."
    Examples (English)
  • The common content of each of the the following utterances is a proposition:

    • Alec ate the banana.
    • The banana was eaten by Alec.
    • Did Alec eat the banana?
    • Alec, eat the banana.

    All these utterances may be analyzed as consisting of a predicate naming an event or state and one or more arguments naming referents that participate in that event or state.

    • The activity is eat.
    • The agent is Alec.
    • The patient is a banana.
  • Adapted from:

    Fleming 1988 53–57

    Kind
    Here is a kind of proposition:
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 249

    Mish 1991 944

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 1

    Hollenbach 1975 2

    Fleming 1988 27, 53–57

    Beekman and Callow 1974 287–288

    What is a propositional act?

    Definition

    A propositional act is a speech act that a speaker performs when referring or predicating in an utterance.

    Example (English)
  • The following utterances all have the same propositional act despite their different illocutionary acts , utterance acts , and perlocutionary acts :

    • You go home.
    • Do you go home?
    • Go home!
    • How I wish you’d go home!
  • Generic
    A propositional act is a kind of
    Source

    Searle 1969 23–24

    What is a propositional content condition?

    Definition

    A propositional content condition is a limitation on the nature of the state of affairs described by the propositional content of an illocutionary act due to the nature of the illocutionary force employed.

    Examples
  • The condition in a commissive act that the commitment to an action must concern a future state of affairs is a propositional content condition.
  • Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 16

    What is a prospective?

    Definition

    A prospective is a grammaticalization of the relationship of a present state to a future situation. It indicates that one is in a present state of being about to do something.

    Example (English)
  • Bill is going to throw himself off the cliff.
  • The item going to is a statement of Bill’s present state and is true irrespective of whether he is stopped or not.

    Source:

    Comrie 1985b 65

    Sources

    Dahl 1985 111–112

    Comrie 1985b 64–65, 106

    What is a prototype?

    Definition

    The prototype of any category is the member or set of members of a category that best represents the category as a whole.

    Discussion

    Not everything fits perfectly in a category. Categories are defined by an intersection of properties that make up their members. Members that have all of the properties are the prototype members. Those that contain some, but not all, of the properties are less prototypical.

    Example

    Prototypical nouns embody extremely and obviously time-stable concepts. ‘Rock’ and ‘tree’ are prototypical nouns.

    Adapted from:

    Payne, T. 1997a 7, 33–35

    Nonexamples

    The English word ‘fist’ is classified as a noun because it behaves distributionally the same as prototypical nouns. However, the concept ‘fist’ does not fit the prototype of a noun, because a ‘fist’ does not characteristically persist over a long period of time. Some languages do not express this concept with a simple noun at all.

    What is a pro-verb?

    Definition

    A pro-verb is a pro-form that substitutes for a verb or predicate .

    Example (English)
  • He likes cheese and I do, too.
  • Generic
    A pro-verb is a kind of
    Source

    Schachter 1985 34

    What is a proximal?

    Definition

    A proximal is a distinction in place deixis that indicates location close to the speaker or other deictic center .

    Generic
    A proximal is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 62

    What is a proximal-distal dimension?

    Definition

    A proximal-distal dimension is a distinction in place deixis that indicates distance from the speaker or other deictic center .

    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of words that indicate a proximal-distal dimension:

    • that
    • this
    • yonder
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of proximal-distal dimensions:
    Source

    Levinson 1983 81

    What is proximate person deixis?

    Definition

    Proximate person deixis is a third person deixis that distinguishes a referent that is more important at the present stage of the discourse from a referent that is less important.

    Generic
    Proximate person deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 247

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 152

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 168

    Anderson, S. and Keenan 1985 262

    What is a pseudo-cleft sentence?

    by Kent Spielmann (contributor)
    Definition

    A pseudo-cleft sentence is a kind of cleft sentence in which the subordinated clause is a relative clause headed by an interrogative pro-form . In English they are of the form:

  • wh-relative clause + be + X
  • X can be a constituent of one of many varieties.

    The so-called 'inverted' pseudo-cleft sentence reverses the order of the two constituents:

  • X + be + wh-relative clause
  • Examples
    Pseudo-cleft Inverted pseudo-cleft
    What John gave to Mary were flowers Flowers were what John gave to Mary.
    Generic
    A pseudo-cleft sentence is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 63

    Levinson 1983 182–183

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1383–1384

    Sornicola 1988 343–344

    Bromser 1984 327

    Jespersen 1949 147–148

    Delahunty 1984 74–88

    What is a pun?

    Definition

    A pun is a variety of a usually humorous play on words involving

    • the multiple meanings of an expression, or
    • two expressions that sound similar.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of puns:
    Generic
    A pun is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 482

    Mish 1991 954