What is range as a semantic role?

Definition

Range is the semantic role of the entity that completes, is a product of, or further specifies an event.

Discussion

The term range is used differently by some linguists, such as Grimes and Halliday. They give it the same meaning as locative or location.

Example (English)
  • They sang a song.
  • Generic
    Range is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1983 129–130

    Grimes 1975 121

    What is a range of reference?

    Definition

    A range of reference is a collection of all possible entities in the referential realm denoted by a lexical unit .

    Examples

    Here are examples of the word wrist in three languages, illustrating different ranges of reference in each language:

    Language

    Lexical unit

    Range of reference

    English translation equivalent

    Hebrew

    yad

    The part of the body from the fingertips to the wrist, sometimes including part of the forearm (in Genesis 24:47)

    wrist, hand, forearm

    Tuwali Ifugao

    takle

    The part of the body from the fingertips to the joint at the shoulder

    wrist, hand, arm

    English

    wrist

    The joint or part of the arm between the hand and the forearm

    Nonexamples

    Here are some other terms that may be confused with the term range of reference:

    • Referent identification —the association of words, expressions or morphemes in a text with a particular participant or object

      Also known as:

      participant identification, participant tracking

    • Range of meaning —the different senses (lexical units) of a lexeme

    What is rank?

    Definition

    Rank is the relationship between units that refer to different values of some variable underlying property such as the following:

    • Degree
    • Grade
    • Relative position
    • Social position
    • Stratum
    Sources

    Cruse 1986 192

    Neufeldt 1991 1112

    What is a rank lexical relation?

    Definition

    A rank lexical relation is an association between lexical units which have different relative values based on some shared underlying semantic property.

    Discussion

    Lexical units which are related by rank are likely to be functionally descriptive of the characteristics of an entity. They are likely to be lexical categorized as nouns .

    Examples (English)
    • {private, corporal, sergeant, general}
    • {Kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 2,…}
    • {priest, bishop, archbishop, cardinal, pope}
    Source:

    Cruse 1986 193

    Underlying structure

    A rank set has the structure of a scale.

    See:

    What is a lexical relation with a scale structure for other examples of similar lexical relations in English.

    What is a ratified participant?

    Definition

    A ratified participant is one who, in a speech event, has the role of

    Generic
    A ratified participant is a kind of
    Source

    Goffman 1976 260

    What is realis modality?

    Definition

    Realis modality is a modality that connotes the factuality of a proposition .

    Discussion

    In its broad usage, the term realis is approximately equivalent in meaning to the term indicative, which in turn is used, narrowly, as a synonym to declarative .

    Generic
    Realis modality is a kind of
    Sources

    Noonan 1985 96

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 241

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 99

    Crystal 1980 183

    Mish 1991 613

    What is a reason-result relation?

    Definition

    A reason-result relation is a causal relation in which the propositions express an event or state that brings about another event or state. The result occurs regardless of human intention or nonintention.

    Examples (English)
    • He was sick, so he stayed home.
    • The earth remains in orbit because it has sufficient velocity.
    Generic
    A reason-result relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Beekman and Callow 1974 301

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 102

    What is receiving time?

    Definition

    Receiving time is the time at which an addressee hears or reads a message.

    This time may be the deictic center for expressions of time deixis .

    Example (English)
  • In the following utterance, the time referred to by today is the receiving time:

  • This programme was recorded last Wednesday, April 1st, to be relayed today.
  • Source:

    Fillmore 1975 , cited by Levinson 1983 74

    Sources

    Levinson 1983 54, 62, 73–74

    Fillmore 1975

    What is recent past tense?

    Definition

    Recent past tense is a past tense that refers to a time, culturally and situationally defined, within the span ranging from yesterday to a week or a few months previous.

    Generic
    Recent past tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Comrie 1985b 87

    Dahl 1985 121–122

    What is a reciprocal pronoun?

    Definition

    A reciprocal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a mutual feeling or action among the referents of a plural subject .

    Examples (English)
    • They hit each other.
    • They like each other.
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 257

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 192

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 364

    Mish 1991 982

    What is reduplication?

    Definition

    Reduplication is a morphological process in which a root or stem or part of it is repeated.

    Example (Ilocano, Philippines)

    Singular

    Plural

    pingan 'dish'

    pingpingan 'dishes'

    talon 'field'

    taltalon 'fields'

    Generic
    Reduplication is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 193

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 183

    Anderson, Stephen 1985 169

    Comrie and Thompson 1985 396

    Mish 1991 988

    What is reference?

    Definition

    Here are two senses for reference:

    1. Reference is the symbolic relationship that a linguistic expression has with the concrete object or abstraction it represents.
    2. Reference is the relationship of one linguistic expression to another, in which one provides the information necessary to interpret the other.
    Examples

    Here is an example of reference:

  • A pronoun refers to the noun antecedent that is used to interpret it.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of reference:
    Generic
    A reference is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 193

    Crystal 1985 259–260

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 184

    What is a reference clause?

    Definition

    Here are two senses of a reference clause:

    1. A reference clause is a clause with an argument that, in a marking clause elsewhere in the sentence, is signaled as being coreferential or not to the argument of the marking clause.
    2. In a language having a switch reference system, a reference clause is a clause with an argument, which is typically the subject .
    Generic
    A reference clause is a kind of
    Source

    Haiman and Munro 1983 ix–xiii

    What is a reference grammar?

    Definition

    A reference grammar is a prose-like description of the major grammatical constructions in a language, illustrated with examples.

    Contrast

    Here is a table that contrasts reference grammars with pedagogical grammars:

    A reference grammar is …

    A pedagogical grammar is …

    Designed to teach someone about the language and to give readers a reference tool for looking up specific details of the language.

    Designed to teach someone how to use a language.

    Organized according to universal structural categories.

    Organized according to usefulness and ease of learning.

    Contains chapters which tend to be longer than those in a pedagogical grammar.

    Contains chapters which tend to be short and contain very brief grammatical explanations.

    Contains chapters which consist mostly of explanation plus one or two examples of every point mentioned.

    Contains chapters which consist mostly of exercises that help the reader practice and internalize the various structures as well as vocabulary and pronunciation.

    Written for individuals who have some understanding of language as a universal phenomenon and who wish to learn how the particular language described fits into universal understandings of human language.

    Written for anyone who is interested in learning a language.

    Parts

    Here are the parts of a reference grammar:

    • Introduction
    • Body
    • Index
    • Bibliography
    • List of Abbreviations
    Kinds
    • Here is a table that describes the two kinds of reference grammars based on their organization and intended users:

      Intended Users

      Organization

      Example

      Mother-tongue speakers of the language who want to understand more about their language

      Organized in terms of the forms that the readers already know how to use, but are not aware of their significance to the grammar as a whole

      In a reference grammar of English for English speakers there may be sections on the and a.

      Linguists who want information on the language for comparative purposes

      Organized in terms of a universal outline designed to help the reader make meaningful comparisons between the language described and other languages

      In a reference grammar of English, the and a may be treated in a section on 'identifiability'. (Reference grammars of other languages may treat the order of nouns in a sentence or some bound morphological markers under this same heading.)

    What is a referent?

    Introduction

    Words are used to represent things and experiences in the real or imagined world. Different words can be used to describe the same thing or experience.

    Definition

    A referent is the concrete object or concept that is designated by a word or expression. A referent is an object, action, state, relationship, or attribute in the referential realm .

    Example

    Historically, there was only one person called George Washington, the first president of the United States. He can be referred to in a text in many ways, such as

    • the president
    • Mr. Washington
    • he, or even
    • my friend.

    Even though there are many ways to talk about him, there is only one referent in the referential realm.

    Sources

    Crystal 1985 259–260

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 193

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 184

    Foley, W. and Van Valin 1985 283

    Mish 1991 989

    What is a referent honorific?

    Definition

    A referent honorific is an honorific for which both the referent and the target of the expression of relative social status are the same.

    Examples (French)
  • Both the referent and target of expression of the second person pronouns tu [familiar] and vous [polite] are the addressee .
  • Generic
    A referent honorific is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 90

    What is the referential realm?

    Definition

    The referential realm is anything, real or imagined, that a person may talk about.

    What is a reflexive pronoun?

    Definition

    A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that has coreference with the subject .

    Example (English)
  • He prides himself on his appearance.
  • Generic
    A reflexive pronoun is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 194

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 356–358

    Mish 1991 990

    What is a reflexive verb?

    Definition

    A reflexive verb is a verb whose agent performs an action that is directed at itself. It characteristically takes a reflexive pronoun as its object .

    Examples (English)
  • He perjured himself.
  • He shaved .
  • Source:

    Mish 1991 990

    Generic
    A reflexive verb is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 194

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 356–358

    Mish 1991 990

    What is a reformulation?

    Definition

    A reformulation is a self-repair by means of a paraphrase of the repairable item.

    Example (English)
    • I need a new bolt for my oil pan, the bolt in the bottom for draining the oil.

    The response to the other-initiation in the following exchange is also a reformulation:

  • A: I need a new bolt for my oil pan.
  • B: Which?
  • A: The big one underneath.
  • Generic
    A reformulation is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 329–330

    What is a rejection finalizer?

    Definition

    A rejection finalizer is a move that signals the speaker 's acceptance of a rejection by another participant.

    The rejection may be of an offer that has previously been made to the other participant.

    Example (English)
  • The Okay in the last turn is a rejection finalizer:

  • A: Are you sure you don't want a cigarette?
  • B: No, I couldn't take your last but one.
  • A: Well, the last one actually—that would be my last one.
  • B: No thanks.
  • A: Go on, have it Rob.
  • B: No, no I'm not having it, I'd feel too bad.
  • A: Okay.
  • Generic
    A rejection finalizer is a kind of
    Source

    Tsui 1989 556

    What is a relational proposition?

    Definition

    A relational proposition is a proposition that

    Example (English)
  • I’m hungry. Let’s go to the Fuji Gardens.
  • There is a relational proposition in this sequence that expresses a solutionhood relation and means "our going to Fuji Gardens is a (partial) solution to my problem of being hungry."

    Source:

    Mann and Thompson 1983 10

    Generic
    A relational proposition is a kind of
    Sources

    Mann and Thompson 1986 7–9

    Mann and Thompson 1985 1–3

    Mann and Thompson 1983 9–13, 16–17

    What is relational social deixis?

    Definition

    Relational social deixis is deictic reference to a social relationship between the speaker and an addressee , bystander, or other referent in the extralinguistic context.

    Examples (French, Southeast Asian languages, Dyirbal)
    • Distinctions between the French second person pronouns tu and vous
    • Speech levels of Southeast Asian languages that depend on the relative status of the speaker and addressee
    • Distinctions between lexical choices made in the presence of certain kin in Dyirbal
    Generic
    Relational social deixis is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1979 :207

    What is a relative adverb?

    Definition

    A relative adverb is a pro-adverb that marks a relative clause .

    Example (English)
  • The street where you live
  • Generic
    A relative adverb is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 195

    Mish 1991 995

    What is a relative clause?

    Definition

    A relative clause is a clause which describes the referent of a head noun or pronoun .

    It often restricts the reference of the head noun or pronoun.

    Discussion

    A relative clause is not necessarily a constituent of the noun phrase containing the head noun it modifies.

    Example

    The plumber arrived who we had called earlier. (Who we had called earlier has been extraposed from its normal position after plumber and is not a member of the noun phrase containing plumber.)

    Examples (English)
    • The man who went
    • Passengers leaving on Flight 738
    Source:

    Comrie 1989 143–144

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of relative clauses:
    Generic
    A relative clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 5, 195

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 6

    Crystal 1980 303

    Thompson and Longacre 1985 172

    Keenan 1985 141–142

    Mish 1991 994

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1245

    Comrie 1989 142–144

    What is relative future tense?

    Definition

    Relative future tense is a relative tense that refers to a time located after a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter’s relation to the moment of utterance .

    Example (English)
  • Passengers about to depart on Flight 26 proceeded to Gate 5.
  • Passengers about to depart on Flight 26 should proceed to Gate 5.
  • Passengers about to depart on Flight 26 will proceed to Gate 5.
  • The time of departure is, in each case, in the future relative to a temporal reference point. In these cases, the temporal point is likely that of the action expressed by the main verb phrase.

    Source:

    Comrie 1985b 60

    Generic
    Relative future tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 59–60

    What is relative nonfuture tense?

    Definition

    Relative nonfuture tense is a relative tense that refers to a time simultaneous to, or before, a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance .

    Examples (English)
    • Those persons [that are ] successful in completing the course will receive a certificate.
    • The people entering the stadium received a program.
    Generic
    Relative nonfuture tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 124–125

    What is relative nonpast tense?

    Definition

    Relative nonpast tense is a relative tense that refers to a time simultaneous to, or after, a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance .

    Generic
    Relative nonpast tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 63, 124–125

    What is relative past tense?

    Definition

    Relative past tense is a relative tense that refers to a time located before that of a contextually determined temporal reference point.

    Example (English)
  • The construction “having + verb” in the following sentences expresses relative past tense:

    • Having spoken, he sat down.
    • Having spoken, he will sit down.

    The speaking occurs before the time of sitting, which may have differing relations to the moment of utterance .

  • Generic
    Relative past tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 59

    What is relative present tense?

    Definition

    Relative present tense is a relative tense that refers to a time that is simultaneous with some contextually determined temporal reference point.

    Example (English)
  • The -ing forms in certain subordinate clauses express relative present tense, as in the following:

    • Walking in the woods, he saw a squirrel.
    • Walking in the woods, he will find buried treasure.

    Walking in both cases is understood as simultaneous with the time of the action of the main verb. This time may have different temporal relations with the moment of utterance.

  • Generic
    Relative present tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 57–59

    What is a relative pronoun?

    Definition

    A relative pronoun is a pronoun that

    Example (English)
  • The man who comes next
  • Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 195

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 365

    What is relative tense?

    Definition

    Relative tense is a tense that refers to a time in relation to a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter’s temporal relation to the moment of utterance .

    Example (English)
  • The -ing forms in certain subordinate clauses express relative present tense , as in the following:

    • Walking in the woods, he saw a squirrel.
    • Walking in the woods, he will find buried treasure.

    Walking in both cases is understood as simultaneous with the time of the action of the main verb. This time may have different temporal relations with the moment of utterance .

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of relative tense:
    Generic
    Relative tense is a kind of
    Source

    Comrie 1985b 36, 58, 124–125

    What is a relativizer?

    Definition

    A relativizer is a subordinating conjunction that links a relative clause to its head noun .

    It is distinguishable from a relative pronoun in that it does not have a nominal function within the relative clause.

    Example (Hausa)
    na ga mutumin da ya yi aikin
    I_PERF see the_man RELATIVIZER he_PERF do the_work
    ‘I saw the man who did the work.’

    Despite the English translation ‘who’, da is not the subject within the relative clause and is not a pronoun.

    Generic
    A relativizer is a kind of
    Source

    Schachter 1985 51

    What is a relator?

    Definition

    A relator is a lexical item whose function is to show the relationship between its surrounding constructions.

    Examples (English)
    • in
    • to
    • and
    • in addition to
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of relators:

    What is a relevance implicature?

    Definition

    A relevance implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressee 's assumption as to whether a speaker is observing or flouting the conversational maxim of relation or relevance .

    If the speaker is assumed to be observing the maxim, then the addressee makes a standard implicature . If the speaker is assumed to be flouting the maxim, then the addressee makes a more nonstandard type of implicature.

    Examples (English)
  • In the following exchange, the implicature that A draws as to the time of day from B’s presumably relevant response is a relevance implicature:

  • A: Can you tell me the time?
  • B: Well, the milkman has come.

  • Source:

    Levinson 1983 107

    In the following exchange, the implicature A draws (that A’s remark was not welcome to B) from B’s response is a relevance implicature:

  • A: Mrs. X is an old bag.
  • B: The weather has been quite delightful this summer, hasn't it?

  • Source:

    Grice 1975 54

  • Generic
    A relevance implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 107

    Grice 1975 46, 54

    What is remote future tense?

    Definition

    Remote future is a future tense that refers to a time that is considered relatively distant. It is characteristically after the span of time culturally defined as "tomorrow."

    Generic
    Remote future tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Dahl 1985 121

    Comrie 1985b 94

    What is remote past tense?

    Definition

    Remote past tense is a past tense that refers to a time considered more than a few days ago.

    Generic
    Remote past tense is a kind of
    Sources

    Dahl 1985 121

    Comrie 1985b 88

    What is a repair?

    Definition

    A repair is an alteration that is suggested or made by a speaker , the addressee , or audience in order to correct or clarify a previous conversational contribution.

    It may occur at any of several points following the contribution in question, perhaps occurring in accordance with a conventional order of preference.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of repairs:
    Source

    Levinson 1983 339–341

    What is a repartee discourse?

    Definition

    Repartee discourse is a discourse that is used to recount a series of speech exchanges.

    Generic
    A repartee discourse is a kind of
    Source

    Larson 1984 379

    What is a restatement relation?

    Definition

    A restatement relation is an interpropositional relation in which a proposition(s) substantially paraphrases another proposition(s).

    Example (English)
  • A well-groomed car reflects its owner. The car you drive says a lot about you.

    Source:

    Noel 1986 69, cited by Mann and Thompson 1987b 71

  • Generic
    A restatement relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 71

    Noel 1986 69

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 95

    Hollenbach 1975 18

    van Dijk 1981 271

    What is a restraint removal schema?

    Definition

    A restraint removal schema is a force schema that involves the physical or metaphorical

    • removal of a barrier to the action of a force, or
    • absence of a barrier that was potentially present.
    Generic
    A restraint removal schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 46–47

    What is a restrictive relative clause?

    Definition

    A restrictive relative clause is a relative clause that helps to identify the referent of the word that it modifies.

    Discussion

    In some languages, a restrictive relative clause is formally marked.

    Example (English)
  • The man that you see
  • Generic
    A restrictive relative clause is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 185

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1239

    Crystal 1985 :265

    Mish 1991 1006

    Comrie 1989 138–139

    What is a result?

    Definition

    A result is a semantic role that refers to that which is produced by an event.

    This role is usually encoded as the surface object of a sentence .

    Discussion

    The term result is similar in meaning to the term range as used by Longacre and others.

    Example (English)

    Here is an example of result as a semantic role:

  • They baked a cake.
  • Generic
    A result is a kind of
    Sources

    Fillmore 1968

    Larson 1984 199–203

    What is a reverential form?

    Definition

    A reverential form is an expression of social deixis that encodes very high status.

    Example (Latin)

    Here is an example of a reverential form:

  • The Latin second person plural pronoun vos was a reverential form for addressing the emperor.
  • Source:

    Brown, R. and Gilman 1960 255

    Generic
    A reverential form is a kind of
    Source

    Brown, R. and Gilman 1960 253, 255–256

    What is a rhetorical question?

    Definition

    A rhetorical question is an illocutionary act that

    • has the direct illocutionary force of a question , and
    • is not generally used with the expectation of an answer but with some different, indirect force, such as

      • a command
      • a tentative statement, and
      • an evaluation.
    Generic
    A rhetorical question is a kind of
    Sources

    Quirk 1972 825

    Larson 1984 235–236

    Corbett 1971 488–489

    Beekman and Callow 1974 229

    Mish 1991 1011

    What is a rhotacized vowel?

    Definition

    A rhotacized vowel is a vowel colored with the sound of an r.

    What is a rime?

    Definition

    A rime is the part of a syllable which consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it.

    Examples

    Here are some examples of syllables divided into onsets and rimes:

    Word

    Onset

    Rime

    I

    I

    it

    it

    sit

    s

    it

    spit

    sp

    it

    split

    spl

    it

    spoil

    sp

    oil

    pie

    p

    ie

    What is a root?

    Definition

    A root is the portion of a word that

    • is common to a set of derived or inflected forms, if any, when all affixes are removed
    • is not further analyzable into meaningful elements, being morphologically simple, and
    • carries the principle portion of meaning of the words in which it functions.
    Discussion

    If a root does not occur by itself in a meaningful way in a language, it is referred to as a bound morpheme .

    Examples (English)
    • Dis establish
    • Establish ment
    • Establish ments
    Generic
    A root is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 268

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 199

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 187–188

    Mish 1990 1023

    Matthews 1991 64