What is an object?

Definition

Here are two senses for object:

  1. An object, traditionally defined, is either a direct object or an indirect object.
  2. An object, in some usages, is any grammatical relation other than subject .
Kinds
Here are some kinds of objects:
Generic
An object is a kind of
Sources

Crystal 1985 211

Hartmann and Stork 1972 155–156

Mish 1991 814

Comrie 1989 66

What is an object complement?

Definition

An object complement is a complement that is used to predicate a description of the direct object .

Examples (English)
  • The people made Ambrose bishop.
  • The people considered Ambrose holy.
Generic
An object complement is a kind of
Sources

Crystal 1985 60

Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 55

What is obligative mood?

Definition

Obligative mood is a directive mood that signals the speaker 's estimation of the necessity that the proposition expressed in his or her utterance be brought about.

Examples (English)
  • You must do as I say.
  • She has to leave.
Generic
Obligative mood is a kind of
Sources

Nida 1949 169

Chung and Timberlake 1985 247

Palmer 1986 98

Sharma 1982 189–190

What is an oblique object?

Definition

An oblique object is a grammatical relation proposed for a noun phrase clause constituent with the following characteristics:

Example (English)
  • English prepositional phrases , as clause constituents, can be considered oblique objects.
  • She was bitten by a spider.
  • Generic
    An oblique object is a kind of
    Sources

    Andrews, A. 1985 81–82, 92, 127–128

    Comrie 1989 66, 179

    What is an obliterative overlap?

    Definition

    An obliterative overlap is an overlap that is intended to blot out some portion of the speech of another participant.

    Generic
    An obliterative overlap is a kind of
    Source

    Moerman 1988 21–22

    What is obviative person deixis?

    Definition

    Obviative person deixis is third person deixis that distinguishes a less important referent in the present stage of the discourse from a referent that is more important.

    Generic
    Obviative person deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 212

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 152

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 168

    Anderson, S. and Keenan 1985 262

    Foley, W. and Van Valin 1984 333

    What is an offprint?

    Definition

    An offprint is a separate reprint of an article that first appeared as part of a larger publication.

    Adapted from:

    Neufeldt 1991 941

    What is an oh-receipt?

    Definition

    An oh-receipt is a move (such as the utterance of oh in English) that signals a sharp change in the state in the speaker’s knowledge, such as the

    • overcoming of a previous expectation, or
    • achievement of a new understanding resulting from new information.
    Generic
    An oh-receipt is a kind of
    Source

    Greatbatch 1988 406

    What is onomatopoeia?

    Definition

    Onomatopoeia is the use of a word that denotes a

    • sound suggested by the phonetic quality of the word, or
    • thing that produces such a sound.
    Examples (English)
    • gong
    • crackle
    • twitter
    Source:

    Corbett 1971 491

    Generic
    Onomatopoeia is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 490–491

    Mish 1991 825

    What is an onset?

    Definition

    An onset is the part of the syllable that precedes the vowel of the syllable.

    Examples

    Here are some examples of syllables divided into onsets and rimes :

    Word

    Onset

    Rime

    I

    I

    it

    it

    sit

    s

    it

    spit

    sp

    it

    split

    spl

    it

    spoil

    sp

    oil

    pie

    p

    ie

    What is an ontological metaphor?

    Definition

    An ontological metaphor is a metaphor in which an abstraction, such as an activity, emotion, or idea, is represented as something concrete, such as an object, substance, container, or person.

    Examples (English)
  • The following sentences express the

    activity-as-container metaphor

    :

    • How did Jerry get out of washing the windows?
    • Outside of washing the windows, what else did you do?
    • How did you get into window-washing as a profession?
    • I put a lot of energy into washing the windows.
    • I get a lot of satisfaction out of washing windows.

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 31

  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of ontological metaphors:
    Generic
    An ontological metaphor is a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 25–33

    What is an open class?

    Definition

    An open class is a grammatical class of words with a potentially unlimited membership. These words have content meaning.

    Examples

    Here are some examples of open classes:

    What is an open presupposed proposition?

    Definition

    An open presupposed proposition is a presupposition that contains a variable about which the utterance supplies information.

    Example (English)
  • She gave something to Harry.
  • This proposition is presupposed by the contrastive stress in she gave the SHIRT to Harry and by the cleft sentence it was the SHIRT that she gave to Harry.

    Source:

    Prince 1986 209

    Generic
    An open presupposed proposition is a kind of
    Source

    Prince 1986 209

    What is an opposite lexical relation?

    Introduction

    Some cultures base their world view on the dichotomy of opposites. Other cultures recognize relatively few sets of opposite concepts.

    Definition

    An opposite lexical relation is an association between two lexical units which have the opposite core meanings in some contexts.

    Examples (English)

    Here are some kinds of opposites in English, their definitions, and example sets:

  • Kind

    Definition and comment

    Example set

    Complements

    Opposites that have mutually exclusive properties. For example, if people are not dead, they must be alive.

    {(dead, alive), (true, false), (open, shut), (male, female)}

    Antonyms

    Opposites that are at two corresponding points or ranges of a scale. For example, if something is not long, it is not necessarily short. There is neutral ground on the scale.

    {(long, short), (good, bad), (hot, cold), (warm, cool)}

    Directional converses

    Opposites marking the two directions along an axis.

    {(east, west), (up, down), (convex, concave)}

    Relational converses

    Opposites which specify the relative positions of two entities on opposite sides or poles of a spatial or relational axis.

    {(above, below), (in front of, behind)}; {(doctor, patient), (teacher, pupil), (master, servant), (husband, wife)}

  • Source:

    Cruse 1986 199, 204, 223, 232

  • Underlying structure

    The underlying structure of an opposite set is a set of pairs.

    Frames

    Here are some kinds of frames for opposites in English, with examples:

  • Kind

    Frame

    Example

    Complements

    If something is not X, then it has to be Y.

    If something is not true, then it has to be false.

    Antonyms

    When measuring or judging in a certain way, something can be either X or Y, or it can be neither.

    When measuring temperature, something can be either hot or cold, or it can be neither.

    Directional converses

    If something goes (or faces) X and it turns around, it goes (or faces) Y.

    If something goes up and it turns around, it goes down.

    If something is X, oriented the other way it is Y.

    If something is convex, oriented the other way it is concave.

    Relational converses

    Something is X (in relation to something else). If it is on the opposite side, it is Y.

    Something is in front of the house. If it is on the opposite side, it is behind.

    An X and a Y make up an R relationship.

    A husband and a wife make up a marriage relationship.

  • What is optative mood?

    Definition

    Optative mood is a volitive mood that signals wishing or hoping.

    Example (Classical Greek)

    Here is an example of optative mood (diacritical markings are not reproduced here):

    ei gar genoime:n teknon anti sou nekros
    oh that become.1SINGULAR.AORIST.OPTATIVE son instead-of thou corpse
    ‘O that I might be a corpse, my child, instead of you!’

    (Euripides, Hypolytus 1410 cited by Palmer 1986 117 )

    Generic
    Optative mood is a kind of
    Sources

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 247

    Nida 1949 168

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 54, 154–155

    Bybee 1985 166

    Mish 1991 828

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 839

    Palmer 1986 116–118

    Crystal 1985 90

    What is an ordinal numeral?

    Definition

    An ordinal numeral is a numeral belonging to a class whose members designate positions in a sequence.

    Examples (English)
    • First
    • Second
    • Third
    Generic
    An ordinal numeral is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 252

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 159

    Mish 1991 831

    What is an orientational metaphor?

    Definition

    An orientational metaphor is a metaphor in which concepts are spatially related to each other, as in the following ways:

    • Up or down
    • In or out
    • Front or back
    • On or off
    • Deep or shallow
    • Central or peripheral
    Examples (English)
  • The following sentences express the

    happy-as-up

    and the

    sad-as-down

    metaphors:

    • I'm feeling up.
    • That boosted my spirits.
    • Thinking about her always gives me a lift.
    • I'm feeling down.
    • I fell into a depression.

    Source:

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 15

  • Generic
    An orientational metaphor is a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff, G. and Johnson 1980 14–15, 18

    What is an other-initiated repair?

    Definition

    An other-initiated repair is a repair that results from a process that was begun by the addressee of the repaired utterance .

    Examples (English)
  • The last turn is an example of an other-initiated self-repair:

  • A: I need a new bolt for my oil filter.
  • B: A BOLT?
  • A: I mean for my oil PAN.
  • The last turn is an example of an other-initiated other-repair:

  • A: I need a new bolt for my oil filter.
  • B: You mean the PAN.
  • A: Yeah...
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of other-initiated repairs:
    Generic
    An other-initiated repair is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 340–341

    McLaughlin 1984 211–212

    What is an other-repair?

    Definition

    An other-repair is a repair made by a participant other than the one whose speech is repaired.

    Example (English)
  • In the following exchange, the second turn is an other-repair:

  • A: I need a new bolt for my oil filter.
  • B: PAN, you mean.
  • A: Right...
  • Generic
    An other-repair is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 340–341

    What is an out-of-field distinction?

    Definition

    An out-of-field distinction is a distinction in place deixis that indicates that the location is not in visual range.

    Generic
    An out-of-field is a kind of
    Source

    Denny 1978 73

    What is an overall organization?

    Definition

    An overall organization is a schematic description of a kind of conversational encounter. It describes the types and order of a conversation’s turns and sequences .

    Example (English)

    Here is an example of the overall organization of a telephone call:

  • The typical features of a telephone call are as follows: It begins an opening section featuring a hello or identification of the answering party. This is followed by a hello and identification of the calling party, with an exchange of how are you. Then the first topic is announced, followed by topic closing and shifts to (preferably) related topics. This is followed by a closing section consisting of elements like passing turns of okay, an identification of the type of call [ Well, I just wanted to call and … ], more passing turns, and an exchange of good-byes.

  • Generic
    An overall organization is a kind of
    Source

    Levinson 1983 308–317

    What is overlap?

    Definition

    Overlap is simultaneous talk by two or more conversational participants, irrespective of its status in participants’ minds as an interruption.

    Discussion

    Analysts consider an overlap to result from factors such as the following:

    • The desire to start a turn before another so as not to miss the opportunity
    • The desire to make a particular contribution while it is relevant
    • Uncertainty as to whether the current speaker intends to continue
    Kind
    Here is a kind of overlap:
    Sources

    Moerman 1988 19–20, 25

    Murray 1988 115

    What is an oxymoron?

    Definition

    An oxymoron is a collocation of words that have contradictory or sharply incongruous meanings.

    Examples (English)
    • conspicuous by his absence
    • cruel kindness
    • thunderous silence
    • make haste slowly
    Source:

    Corbett 1971 491

    Generic
    An oxymoron is a kind of
    Sources

    Corbett 1971 491

    Mish 1991 844