What is an echo question?

Definition

An echo question is a question that

Example (English)
  • B’s question in the following exchange is an echo question:

  • A: I need a new bolt for my oil filter.
  • B: A BOLT?
  • A: I mean for my oil pan.
  • Generic
    An echo question is a kind of
    Source

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 74

    What is an elaboration relation?

    Definition

    An elaboration relation is an interpropositional relation in which a proposition(s) provides detail relating to some aspect of another proposition.

    Examples (English)
    • Naming a member of a set
    • Providing an instance of an abstraction
    • Naming a part of a whole
    • Describing a step in a process
    • Giving an attribute of an object
    • Providing a specific in relation to a generalization
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of elaboration relations:
    Generic
    An elaboration relation is a kind of
    Source

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 52–53

    What is elative case?

    Definition

    Elative case is a case expressing motion out of or away from the referent of the noun it marks.

    Discussion

    The term elative case is used especially in studies of Finno-Ugric grammar.

    Generic
    Elative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Lyons 1968 299

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 64

    Crystal 1985 106

    Gove 1966 730

    What is an elementary illocutionary act?

    Definition

    An elementary illocutionary act is an illocutionary act that

    • does not have a negated illocutionary force
    • is not performed conditionally, and
    • is not conjoined to another illocutionary act.
    Generic
    An elementary illocutionary act is a kind of
    Source

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 3, 74–76

    What is elicitation?

    Definition

    Elicitation is the act of obtaining language data from another person.

    What is an elicitation frame?

    Introduction

    A language associate needs to understand

    • what you want to elicit, and
    • how you want to elicit it.

    Frames help you constrain and control what you elicit. They are especially used in exploring the following aspects of a language:

    Definition

    An elicitation frame is a fixed environment that is used for discovering or testing particular words.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of frames:

    What is elision?

    Definition

    Elision is the omission of sounds, syllables, or words in spoken or written discourse .

    Discussion

    Unstressed syllables and words are the most prone to be elided.

    Examples
    • /kamra/ 'camera'
    • cuppa tea 'cup of tea'
    • cats 'n dogs 'cats and dogs'
    See also
    • Options for marking word boundaries

    Source

    Crystal 1991 :119–120

    What is an elliptical construction?

    Definition

    An elliptical construction is a construction that lacks an element that is recoverable or inferable from the context.

    Example (English)
  • In the following construction, you are is understood, as in Fire when you are ready.

  • Fire when ready.
  • Generic
    An elliptical construction is a kind of
    Sources

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 65

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 900, 904, 910

    Crystal 1985 107–108

    What is an embedded repair?

    Definition

    An embedded repair is an other-initiated repair that is performed by the addressee of the questioned utterance by the substitution of the repairing item in the addressee’s own utterance.

    Discussion

    An embedded repair may be a preferred form of repair because it avoids questioning the competence of the speaker .

    Example (English)
  • In the following exchange, the substitution by B of pan for the erroneous choice filter is an embedded repair:

  • A: I need a new bolt for my oil filter.
  • B: What size bolt does your pan take?
  • A: Seventeen millimeter.
  • Generic
    An embedded repair is a kind of
    Source

    Jefferson 1987 cited by Levinson 1983 360

    What is empathetic deixis?

    Definition

    Empathetic deixis is the metaphorical use of deictic forms to indicate emotional or other psychological “distance” or “proximity” between a speaker and a referent .

    Examples (English)
    • The use of this to indicate the speaker’s empathy
    • The use of that to indicate the speaker’s emotional distance
    Source:

    Levinson 1983 81

    Generic
    Empathetic deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 81

    Lyons 1977b 677

    What is an emphasis marker?

    Definition

    An emphasis marker is a word or affix that expresses a speaker 's stress upon the predicate of a sentence.

    Example (Vietnamese)
  • In the following sentence, co is an emphasis marker (diacritical markings have not been included here):

    on ba co xem quyen truyen ay
    Mr. Ba EMPHASIS read book story that
    ‘Mr. Ba did read that novel.’
  • Generic
    An emphasis marker is a kind of
    Source

    Schachter 1985 56

    What is an emphatic additive relation?

    Definition

    An emphatic additive relation is an additive relation in which the cumulative nature of the propositions in the relation is emphasized.

    Examples (English)
    • further
    • furthermore
    • also
    • moreover
    • what is more
    • besides
    • additionally
    • in addition
    • not only that but
    Generic
    An emphatic additive relation is a kind of
    Source

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 246

    What is an emphatic alternative relation?

    Definition

    An emphatic alternative relation is an alternative relation in which the existence of different possibilities is stressed.

    Example (English)
  • The use of alternatively as a connective instead of or indicates an emphatic alternative relation.
  • Generic
    An emphatic alternative relation is a kind of
    Source

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 247

    What is an emphatic pronoun?

    Definition

    An emphatic pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used to emphasize its referent .

    Example (French)
  • In the following sentence, moi is used as an emphatic pronoun:

  • Moi, je suis français. ‘Me, I am French.’
  • Generic
    An emphatic pronoun is a kind of
    Source

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 76

    What is an enablement relation?

    Definition

    An enablement relation is an interpropositional relation in which a proposition(s) supports a speaker 's directive by improving the addressee’s ability to fulfill it or take advantage of it.

    Examples (English)
    • Providing an address for an invitation
    • Giving a deadline for making an application
    Generic
    An enablement relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 54–55

    Matthiessen and Thompson 1987 23–24

    What is an enablement schema?

    Definition

    An enablement schema is a force schema that involves having

    • the physical or metaphorical power to perform some act, or
    • a potential force and the absence of blockage or counterforce.
    Generic
    An enablement schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 47

    What is an enclitic?

    Definition

    An enclitic is a clitic that is phonologically joined at the end of a preceding word to form a single unit.

    Examples (English)
  • The English negative morpheme not becomes an enclitic when de-stressed and joined to the preceding auxiliary verb , as in the following:

    • can’t
    • won’t
    • shouldn’t
    Source:

    Mish 1991 409

  • Sources

    Crystal 1980 64

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 65

    Mish 1991 409

    What is an endocentric construction?

    Definition

    An endocentric construction is a construction that contains

    • a head , which is the single obligatory element in the construction (except in coordinate constructions, which have multiple heads), and
    • one or more optional elements subordinate to the head.

    The optional elements can, in the proper context, be omitted without loss of grammaticality. The head is a syntactically adequate substitution for the whole construction.

    Examples (English)
    • In the following sentence, the noun phrase wet paint is an endocentric construction. The word paint is the obligatory head and may stand alone in its position in the clause. The word wet is an optional subordinate element.

    • There is wet paint on the bench.
    • The coordinate noun phrase dogs and ponies is an endocentric construction. Both nouns are heads of the noun phrase.
    Generic
    An endocentric construction is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 76

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 66

    Crystal 1985 109

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 60

    What is an end-of-path schema?

    Definition

    An end-of-path schema is an image schema in which a location is understood as the termination of a prescribed path.

    Example (English)
  • In the following sentence, it is understood that one must traverse the hill before reaching Sam’s home, which is at the end of the path:

  • Sam lives over the hill.
  • Generic
    An end-of-path schema is a kind of
    Source

    Bennett 1975 50 , cited by Lakoff, G. 1987 440–441

    What is endophora?

    Definition

    Endophora is coreference of an expression with another expression either before it or after it. One expression provides the information necessary to interpret the other.

    Discussion

    The endophoric relationship is often spoken of as one expression “referring to” another.

    Examples (English)
    • A well-dressed man was speaking; he had a foreign accent.
    • If you need one, there’s a towel in the top drawer.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of endophora:
    Generic
    Endophora is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 109

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 33

    What is an entity metaphor?

    Definition

    An entity metaphor is an ontological metaphor in which an abstraction is represented as a concrete physical object.

    Examples (English)
  • In the following sentences, the mind is represented as a machine or a brittle object:

    • We're still trying to grind out the solution to this equation.
    • My mind just isn’t operating today.
    • Her ego is very fragile.
    • You have to handle him with care since his wife’s death.
  • Kind
    Here is a kind of entity metaphor:
    Generic
    An entity metaphor is a kind of
    Source

    Lakoff and Johnson 1980 :25, 27–28

    What is an environment?

    Definition

    An environment is all the parts of an utterance that directly surround a given sound.

    Discussion

    The environment of a sound may be adjacent sounds, or a break in sound, such as at the beginning or end of a syllable , word or phrase.

    Example (English)

    Here is an example of the environment of the sound [Q] in the English word tap.

  • word: [tHQp] ‘tap’
  • environment: [tH…p]
  • Example (Spanish)

    Here is an example of the environment of the sound [o] in the Spanish word gato.

  • word: [gAto] ‘cat’
  • environment: [gat…#]
  • (The symbol “#” represents the end of a word.)

    What is epistemic modality?

    Definition

    Epistemic modality is a modality that connotes how much certainty or evidence a speaker has for the proposition expressed by his or her utterance .

    Example (English)
  • There’s no answer; he must have already left.
  • Kinds
    Here are some kinds of epistemic modality:
    Generic
    Epistemic modality is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 110

    Chung and Timberlake 1985 242

    Bybee 1985 165–166

    Palmer 1986 10–11, 51

    What is an epistemic qualification?

    Definition

    An epistemic qualification is a signal of the degree of certainty the speaker has for the proposition expressed by his or her utterance .

    Examples (English)

    Here are some examples of epistemic qualifications:

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of epistemic qualification:
    Source

    Caton 1981 :87–88

    What is equative case?

    Definition

    Equative case is a case that expresses likeness or identity to the referent of the noun it marks.

    It can have meaning, such as

    • as
    • like, and
    • in the capacity of.
    Generic
    Equative case is a kind of
    Source

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 67

    What is an equative clause?

    Definition

    An equative clause is a clause which describes a feature of its subject . It contains a subject complement and, typically, a copula .

    Examples (English)
    • He is a doctor.
    • She is the queen.
    Generic
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 :78

    Crystal 1980 :133

    Pike and Pike 1982 :443

    What is an equilibrium schema?

    Definition

    An equilibrium schema is a balance schema that involves physical or metaphorical external and internal pressure on container-like objects.

    Examples (English)
    • Pressure in the stomach
    • Some aspects of psychological balance, such as when emotions are said to be capable of “exploding” and thus in need of being

      • “repressed”
      • “suppressed,” and
      • “held in.”
    Source:

    Johnson 1987 88

    Generic
    An equilibrium schema is a kind of
    Source

    Johnson 1987 86, 88–89

    What is an equivalent?

    Definition

    An equivalent is a term of social deixis that expresses equality of status.

    Example (French)
  • In medieval times, the mutual use of the same second-person pronoun , t u or vous, by the speaker and addressee expressed their equivalent social status.
  • Generic
    An equivalent is a kind of
    Source

    Brown and Gilman 1960 :256

    What is ergative case?

    Definition

    Ergative case is the case of nouns in ergative-absolutive languages that would generally be the subjects of transitive verbs in the translation equivalents of nominative-accusative languages such as English.

    Discussion

    Ergative case is more likely to be formally marked on the noun than absolutive case is.

    Generic
    Ergative case is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 134

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 78

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 67

    Andrews, A. 1985 138

    What is essive case?

    Definition

    Essive case is a case that expresses the temporary state of the referent specified by a noun .

    The case has the meaning of

    • while, and
    • in the capacity of.
    Discussion

    The term essive case is used especially in Finnish and Hungarian grammatical studies.

    Generic
    Essive case is a kind of
    Sources

    Lyons 1968 299, 301

    Gove 1966 778

    Crystal 1985 112

    What is etymology?

    Definition

    Etymology is the study of the origins and history of the form and meaning of words.

    Source

    Crystal 1991 126

    What is a euphemism?

    Definition

    A euphemism is a metaphorical or metonymic use of an expression in place of another expression that is disagreeable or offensive.

    Example (English)
  • In Acts 2:39 and Ephesians 2:13, 17 of the Bible, the expression those that are afar off is used in place of a term of direct reference to the Gentiles.
  • Source:

    Beekman and Callow 1974 120

  • Generic
    A euphemism is a kind of
    Sources

    Beekman and Callow 1974 119–120

    Mish 1991 428

    What is evaluation information?

    Definition

    Evaluation information is a movable non-event within a discourse that consists of a speaker's feeling toward an event or a state of affairs. It may have broad scope (such as toward a series of events) or narrow scope (such as toward a participant).

    Examples
    • Here comes that blackguard Jones. ( blackguard has the narrow scope of evaluating a participant.)
    • So it is with the one who stores up riches for himself, but is not rich toward God (from the parable of the rich landowner--Luke 12:21). (The entire sentence has the broad scope of evaluating the actions of the rich landowner throughout the preceeding parable.)
    Source

    Grimes, J. E. 1975 :61ff.

    What is an evaluation relation?

    Definition

    An evaluation relation is an interpropositional relation in which a proposition(s) expresses the speaker’s value judgment regarding the factuality or desirability of another proposition(s).

    Example (English)
  • The sentence It all adds up to better performance and reliability following a product description
  • Source:

    Mann and Thompson 1987a 69

  • Generic
    An evaluation relation is a kind of
    Source

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 68–70

    What is an event?

    Definition

    An event is a kind of information in discourse that

    • actually occurs,
    • is overt , and
    • occurs at the now point on the time line.
    Discussion

    A discourse hypothesis is that events and non-events are differentiated.

    Nonexamples
    • Negatives (Nothing is described as having occurred.)
    • Questions (Nothing is described as having occurred.)
    • Modal expressions (No claim is made in a modal expression that anything occurred.)
    • Expressions containing verbs in projected time (Nothing is described as having yet occurred.)
    • Expressions containg verbs (They are not overt. see, hear, feel, but expressions containing look, listen, touch can be events)
    • Flashbacks and previews (They don't occur at the now point of the narrative.)
    See also

    What is an evidence relation?

    Definition

    An evidence relation is a logical relation in which a proposition(s) are intended to increase the addressee 's assurance of another proposition(s).

    Example (English)
  • It must be cold outside; the pond is frozen over.
  • Generic
    An evidence relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Mann and Thompson 1987b 10

    Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981 106–107

    Dijk 1981 171–172

    Fleming 1988 192–193

    What is evidentiality?

    Definition

    Evidentiality is an epistemic modality that connotes the speaker 's assessment of the evidence for his or her statement.

    An evidential is a form, such as a verbal affix, that is a grammatical expression of evidentiality.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of evidentiality:
    Generic
    Evidentiality is a kind of
    Sources

    Bybee 1985 184

    Palmer 1986 66–67

    Givón 1984 307–308

    What is an evoked entity?

    Definition

    An evoked entity is a referent which is given information due

    • to previous mention in the text, or
    • to the prominence of the referent in the extralinguistic context.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of evoked entities:
    Generic
    An evoked entity is a kind of
    Source

    Prince 1981 :233, 236

    What is an exclamation?

    Definition

    Here are two senses for exclamation:

    1. An exclamation, broadly defined, is any utterance made with strong emotion.
    2. An exclamation, narrowly defined, is a sentence type that is used to express a strong emotional state. It contrasts in syntax or morphology with other sentence types which typically express statements, commands, and questions.
    Example (English)
  • What a hot summer it was!
  • Generic
    An exclamation is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 114

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 80

    Sadock and Zwicky 1985 162–163

    What is an exclamative?

    Definition

    An exclamative is a word or phrase which marks an exclamation .

    Example (English)
  • What an idea!
  • Generic
    An exclamative is a kind of
    Source

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 79

    What is an exclusive alternative relation?

    Definition

    An exclusive alternative relation is an alternative relation in which only one of the propositions or groups of propositions can be true or fulfilled.

    Example (English)
  • He is here or he is there.
  • Source:

    Hollenbach 1975 19

  • Generic
    An exclusive alternative relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Dijk 1977 63–64

    Hollenbach 1975 19

    What is exclusive first person deixis?

    Definition

    Exclusive first person deixis is deixis that refers to a group not including the addressee(s) .

    Generic
    Exclusive first person deixis is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 182

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 69

    What is an exemplification relation?

    Definition

    An exemplification relation is a specification relation in which a specification is achieved by providing an instance.

    Example (English)
  • Most of our children are living in California now; Judy, for instance, lives in Berkeley.
  • Source:

    Dijk 1981 270

  • Generic
    An exemplification relation is a kind of
    Sources

    Dijk 1981 270

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 248

    What is an existential clause?

    Definition

    An existential clause is a clause, having a distinctive grammatical structure, which expresses the real or imagined existence of an entity.

    Discussion

    An existential clause often introduces an entity into a discourse .

    Example (English)
  • The clause construction “there + verb [typically be ] + noun phrase” forms an existential clause, as in:

  • There was a man.
  • Generic
    An existential clause is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 114

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1402, 1408

    What is an existential marker?

    Definition

    An existential marker is a word, found in a distinct clause type, which marks a referent 's existence.

    Example (Spanish)
  • The word hay in the following sentence is an existential marker:

    hay muchos libros en la biblioteca
    EXIST many books in the library
    ‘There are many books in the library.’
    Source:

    Schachter 1985 57

  • Generic
    An existential marker is a kind of
    See also
    Sources

    Schachter 1985 57

    Crystal 1980 114

    What is an exocentric construction?

    Definition

    An exocentric construction is a construction that does not contain any head element that is capable of being a syntactically adequate substitution for the whole construction.

    Examples (English)
    • Prepositional phrase

      Neither the component preposition nor the noun phrase may substitute for the whole prepositional phrase.

    • Clause

      No single element of the clause may substitute for the whole.

    Generic
    An exocentric construction is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 80

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 69

    Crystal 1985 114

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 60

    What is exophora?

    Definition

    Exophora is reference of an expression directly to an extralinguistic referent .

    The referent does not require another expression for its interpretation.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of exophora:
    Generic
    Exophora is a kind of
    Sources

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 193

    Crystal 1980 137

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 13

    Gutwinski 1976 67

    What is experiencer as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Experiencer is the semantic role of an entity (or referent ) which

    • receives
    • accepts
    • experiences, or
    • undergoes the effect of an action.
    Discussion

    Normally an experiencer is an entity that receives a sensory impression, or in some other way is the locus of some event or activity that involves neither volition nor a change of state.

    Examples (English)
    • He was scared.
    • Lucretia saw the bicycle.
    • It was Bill who smelled the bacon first.
    • The explosion was heard by everyone.
    Generic
    Experiencer is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1983 155

    Payne, T. 1997a 50

    What is experiential perfect aspect?

    Definition

    Experiential perfect aspect is a grammaticalization of the current relevance, at the moment of utterance , of an event or state that occurred prior to the moment of utterance. The event or state is expressed as an experience which happened at least once, without respect to a particular location in time, and which is repeatable.

    Examples (English)
  • Bill has been to America.
  • This example contrasts with the following sentence, which is an example of perfect of result aspect:

  • Bill has gone to America.
  • Source:

    Comrie 1976a 58

    Generic
    Experiential perfect aspect is a kind of
    Sources

    Comrie 1976a 58–59

    Dahl 1985 141–142

    What is exposed repair?

    Definition

    Exposed repair is an other-initiated repair that is not handled covertly as an embedded repair .

    Generic
    An exposed repair is a kind of
    Source

    Jefferson 1987 , cited by Levinson 1983 360

    What is expository discourse?

    Definition

    Expository discourse is a discourse that explains or describes a topic.

    It does not primarily present contingent events or focus on a performer of actions, but rather tends to present the following kinds of propositions :

    Features
    • Information is logically oriented around a theme.
    • Third person pronoun forms are used.
    • Texts are not oriented around a specific agent .
    Parts
    • Problem
    • Solution
    • Supporting argumentation
    • Evaluation of the solution
    Examples
    • Explanations of cultural norms
    • Explanations of legal matters
    • Explanations of the teachings of the forefathers
    Generic
    An expository discourse is a kind of
    Sources

    Longacre 1983 3, 5, 10, 39

    Longacre 1990 2

    Peck 1981 287

    Larson 1984 366, 372

    What is expository text?

    Definition

    Expository text is a text which explains something.

    Sources

    Larson 1984 366

    Longacre 1983 5

    What is an expressive illocutionary point?

    Definition

    An expressive illocutionary point is an illocutionary point which communicates an attitude or emotion about the state of affairs described in the propositional content of the utterance .

    Discussion

    According to certain analyses, an expressive illocutionary point is one of the five basic purposes that a speaker can have in making an utterance.

    Example (English)
  • I deplore his rudeness.
  • Generic
    An expressive illocutionary point is a kind of
    Sources

    Searle and Vanderveken 1985 39–40

    Crystal 1985 116

    What is extendedness?

    Definition

    Extendedness is a type of place deixis in which the presence or absence of a component of meaning indicates that a location has length or area.

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of extendedness:
    Source

    Denny 1978 72–73

    What is extension?

    Definition

    Extension is place deixis that indicates that a location has length or area.

    Generic
    Extension is a kind of
    Source

    Denny 1978 72–73

    What is an external relation?

    Definition

    An external relation is an interpropositional relation which relates the situations described in the propositions by experiential, extralinguistic reality as opposed to relating them by the solely communicative usage of propositions.

    Examples (English)
  • If it doesn’t rain, there will be a party at Bill’s house.
  • This example contrasts with the following sentence, which is an example of an internal relation sequence:

  • If you’re free tonight, there’s a party at Bill’s house.
  • This example can be understood as If you’re free tonight, then I offer that there’s a party at Bill's house.

    Generic
    An external relation is a kind of
    Source

    Halliday and Hasan 1976 239–241

    What is an external relative clause?

    Definition

    An external relative clause is a relative clause whose head noun phrase is outside the relative clause.

    Also known as:

    External-headed relative clause

    Discussion

    This type of relative clause is a modifier of a separately stated head noun. It does not take the place of the head noun, as does an internal relative clause.

    Example (English)
  • In the following construction, the head noun phrase every student is outside the relative clause:

  • Every student whom Mary advised
  • Generic
    An external relative clause is a kind of
    Source

    Keenan 1985 143

    What is extraposition?

    Definition

    Extrapostion is the process or result of moving an element from its normal place to a place at the end or near to the end of a sentence.

    Example

    The plumber arrived who we had called earlier . (who we had called earlier has been extraposed from its normal position after plumber.)

    Source

    Crystal 1997