What is a gap?

Definition

A gap is conversational silence at the end of a turn in a situation in which

  • no next speaker has been selected by the previous one
  • no participant has selected himself or herself as the next speaker, and
  • the silence is too short to constitute a lapse .
Generic
A gap is a kind of
Sources

Levinson 1983 299

Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson 1978 25

What is grammatical gender?

Definition

Grammatical gender is a noun class system, composed of two or three classes, whose nouns that have human male and female referents tend to be in separate classes. Other nouns that are classified in the same way in the language may not be classed by any correlation with natural sex distinctions.

Kinds
Here are some kinds of grammatical gender:
Generic
Grammatical gender is a kind of
Sources

Hartmann and Stork 1972 93

Foley, W. and Van Valin 1984 325

Mish 1991 510

Crystal 1985 133

Dixon 1968 105

Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 314

What is a generalized implicature?

Definition

A generalized implicature is a conversational implicature that is inferable without reference to a special context.

Example (English)
  • Expressions with the form an X usually imply that X is not closely related to the speaker or subject, as in the following expression:

  • John walked into a house yesterday and saw a tortoise.
  • This expression implies that the house is not John’s house.

    Adapted from:

    Grice 1975 56

  • Generic
    A generalized implicature is a kind of
    Sources

    Levinson 1983 126

    Grice 1975 56

    What is generative phonology?

    Definition

    Generative phonology is a component of generative grammar that assigns the correct phonetic representations to utterances in such a way as to reflect a native speaker’s internalized grammar.

    Discussion

    The following are crucial components of generative phonology:

    • Levels of phonological representation

      Generative phonology posits two levels of phonological representation:

      • An underlying representation is the most basic form of a word before any phonological rules have been applied to it. Underlying representations show what a native speaker knows about the abstract underlying phonology of the language.
      • A phonetic representation is the form of a word that is spoken and heard.
    • Phonological rules

      Phonological rules map underlying representations onto phonological representations. They delete, insert, or change segments, or change the features of segments.

    • Derivations
    • Distinctive features

      Distinctive features make it possible to capture the generalities of phonological rules.

    • Linearity

      A stream of speech is portrayed as a sequence of discrete sound segments. Each segment is composed of simultaneously occurring features.

    Source

    Kenstowicz and Kisseberth 1979

    What is a generic term?

    Definition

    A generic term is a noun or noun phrase that refers to

    • a whole class, or
    • any member of a class as a representative of its class.
    Examples (English)
    • A lion is a noble beast.
    • The lion is a noble beast.
    • Lions are noble beasts.
    • The lions are noble beasts.

      Source:

      Hawkins, J. 1978 214

    Generic
    A generic term is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 136

    Mish 1991 510

    Hawkins, J. 1978 214–215

    What is a generic-specific lexical relation?

    Definition

    A generic-specific lexical relation is a hierarchical association between a lexical unit with a broader, more general meaning and other lexical units with a narrower, more precise meaning.

    Discussion

    Another name for the generic-specific lexical relation is hyponymy. Hyponymy involves the association between a

    • hyponym —a more semantically complex, specific lexical unit (X), and a
    • superordinate —a less semantically complex, general lexical unit (Y).

    X is a hyponym of Y if

    • the sentence "X is necessarily Y" is normal, but
    • the sentence "Y is necessarily X" is not normal.
    Example:

    "Parrot" is a hyponym of "bird" since

    • the sentence "A parrot is necessarily a bird" is normal, but
    • the sentence *"A bird is necessarily a parrot" is not normal.
    Adapted from:

    Cruse 1986 24, 88, 109

    Kinds
    Here are the two major kinds of a generic-specific lexical relation:

    Kind

    Definition and comment

    Natural (taxonomic)

    Specifics can be adequately defined for identificational purposes by listing a few distinguishing features.

    Example:

    horse n. 'a large domesticated mammal with a long flowing tail, used for transportation and work'

    Nominal

    Specifics can be fully defined with conceptually distinct modifiers.

    Example:

    stallion n. 'an uncastrated male horse'

    Examples (English): Generic-specific

    Natural (taxonomic)

    Nominal

    For animate things:

  • Appaloosa
  • Arabian
  • Tennessee walker
  • gelding
  • mare
  • stallion
  • For artifacts:

  • Baldwin
  • Steinway
  • Yamaha
  • grand
  • upright
  • For actions:

    For attributes:

    Sources:

    Cruse 1986 140–141

    Neufeldt 1991 152, 324, 328, 349, 416, 1026, 1123, 1174, 1198, 1423, 1501, 1548

    Underlying structure

    The underlying structure of a generic-specific lexical relation set is a tree.

    Frames

    Here are some frames for testing and eliciting a generic-specific lexical relation:

    • An X is a kind of Y, and Z is also a kind of Y.
    • An X is a type of Y, and a Z is another type of Y.
    • Xs and Zs are different kinds of Y.

    What is genitive case?

    Definition

    Genitive case is a case in which the referent of the marked noun is the possessor of the referent of another noun.

    Discussion

    In some languages, genitive case may express an associative relation between the marked noun and another noun.

    Examples (English)
    • The man's foot
    • The man's brother
    • The man's singing
    • The man's book
    • The man's picture
    Source:

    Fleming 1988 10

    Generic
    Genitive case is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1980 161

    Hartmann and Stork 1972 94–95, 180

    Pei and Gaynor 1954 82, 172

    Anderson, S. 1985 185

    Mish 1991 511

    Fleming 1988 10

    What is genre?

    Definition

    Genre is a category used to classify discourse and literary works, usually by form, technique, or content.

    What is gestural usage?

    Definition

    Gestural usage is the use of a deictic expression in such a way that a physical monitoring of the speech situation is necessary for interpretation of the expression.

    Example (English)
  • In the following sequence, an accompanying gesture is necessary to interpret the expression:

  • This one’s genuine, but this one is a fake.
  • Source:

    Levinson 1983 65

  • See also

    What is symbolic usage?

    Sources

    Fillmore 1975 40

    Levinson 1983 65

    What is given information?

    Definition

    Given information is information that is assumed by the speaker to be known to, assumed by, or inferable by the addressee at the time of the speaker 's utterance , because it is

    • common knowledge
    • part of the extralinguistic context, or
    • previously established in the discourse .
    Discussion

    Given information often is

    • placed early in a sentence, and
    • spoken with a low amount of stress.
    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of given information:
    Generic
    Given information is a kind of
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 136

    Crystal 1980 161–162

    Levinson 1983 88

    Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 1360–1362

    Prince 1981 230

    What is given versus new information?

    Definition

    Given versus new information is a distinction between information that is assumed or supplied by the speaker and that which is presented for the first time.

    Discussion

    The distinction between given and new information may affect the structure of clauses, sentences , and discourses .

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of given versus new information:
    Generic
    Given versus new information is a kind of
    Sources

    Prince 1981 225

    Crystal 1985 136, 206–207

    What is a gloss?

    Definition

    A gloss is a summary of the meaning of a morpheme or word, suitable for use in

    interlinear text

    displays.

    What is a glottal stop?

    Definition

    A glottal stop is a speech sound articulated by a momentary, complete closing of the glottis in the back of the throat. Glottal stops occur in many languages and usually pattern as consonants.

    What is the glottis?

    Definition

    The glottis is the space between the vocal folds.

    What is goal as a semantic role?

    Definition

    Goal is the semantic role of the

    • place to which something moves, or
    • thing toward which an action is directed.
    Examples (English)
    • John swam to the raft.
    • He threw the book at me.
    Generic
    Goal is a kind of
    Sources

    Fillmore 1975 25–26

    Larson 1984 199–203

    Longacre 1983 163–164

    What is a grammatical category?

    Definition

    A grammatical category is a set of syntactic features that

    • express meanings from the same conceptual domain
    • occur in contrast to each other, and
    • are typically expressed in the same fashion.
    Discussion

    The term ‘grammatical category’ has been used to cover a wide variety of things, including what traditional grammars call "parts of speech."

    Examples (English)
    Kinds
    Sources

    Crystal 1985 43–44

    Hopper, P. 1992 81

    Bybee 1985 191

    What is a grammatical relation?

    Definition

    A grammatical relation is a role of a noun phrase or complement clause that determines syntactic behaviors such as the following:

    Kinds
    Here are some kinds of grammatical relations:
    Generic
    A grammatical relation is a kind of
    See also
    • Comparison of semantic role and grammatical relation
    Sources

    Comrie 1989 65–66

    Andrews, A. 1985 66

    What is grammatical tone?

    Definition

    Grammatical tone is the distinctive pitch level which marks contrasts in grammatical features such as tense, aspect, and case.

    Discussion

    In many African languages, tone has a much heavier

    functional load

    in the grammar than in the lexicon. In most tone languages, tone functions in the verb system to mark certain verb tenses or aspects only by tone.

    Examples: Ngiti (Central-Sudanic, Zaire)
    Note:

    Tone is marked as follows:

    • The acute accent |á| means high tone
    • The grave accent |à| means low tone
    • The unmarked |a| means mid tone
    • The wedge |ǎ| means rising tone

    These are examples of grammatical tone in the verb system:

    • ma màkpěnà ‘I whistled’ (recent past)
    • ma mákpěná ‘I whistled’ (intermediate past)
    • ma makpéna ‘I will whistle’ (near future)
    • ma makpénà ‘I used to whistle’ (past habitual)
    • ma mùbhi ‘I walk’ (present perfective)
    • ma mubhi ‘I walked’ (distant past)
    • ma mubhi ‘I walked’ (narrative past)
    See:

    Kutsch Lojenga 1994 247, 249

    Examples: Mashi (Bantu, Zaire)
    Note:

    Tone is marked as follows:

    • The acute accent |á| means high tone
    • The unmarked |a| means low tone

    These are examples of grammatical tone in the narrative past and future: Low and high tone on the subject prefix :

    • nagánja ‘I counted’
    • nágánja ‘I will count’

    These are examples of grammatical tone in the recent past and distant past: Low and high tone on the subject prefix :

    • rhwalángaga ‘we kept (it) well’ (recent past)
    • rhwálángaga ‘we had kept (it) well’ (distant past)
    See:

    Kutsch Lojenga 1993 11

    Examples: Rendille (Cushitic, Kenya)
    Note:

    Tone is marked as follows:

    • The acute accent |á| means high tone
    • The unmarked |a| means low tone

    These are examples where tone distinguishes between subject and object case:

    • ínam ‘boy’ (isolation, object case)
    • inam ‘boy’ (subject case)
    • inám ‘girl’ (isolation, object case)
    • iname ‘girl’ (subject case)
    • iname ínam á agarte ‘the girl (subject) saw the boy (object)’
    • inam inám á arge ‘the boy (subject) saw the girl (object)’
    See:

    Kutsch Lojenga 1993 6

    Generic

    A grammatical tone is a kind of

    tone

    See also

    What is grounding?

    Definition

    Grounding refers to establishing the time, location or actuality of a situation according to some reference point.

    Discussion

    Certain morphosyntactic operations , such as inflection, ground the situation that the clause describes.

    If the operation is…

    Then the reference point is normally …

    Temporal

    Now (the time of utterance).

    Spatial

    Here (the place of utterance).

    Modal or evidential

    Actuality (the situation described by the clause did or will actually take place).

    See also
    Source

    Payne 1997b