What is a quality implicature?

Definition

A quality implicature is a conversational implicature based on the addressee 's assumption as to whether or not the speaker is observing or flouting the conversational maxim of quality .

If the speaker is assumed to be observing the maxim, then the addressee makes a standard implicature . If the speaker is assumed to be flouting the maxim, then the addressee makes a more nonstandard type of implicature.

Examples (English)
  • The sentence John has two Ph.D.'s implicates both of the following:

    • "I believe John has two Ph.D.'s."
    • "I have adequate evidence that John has two Ph.D.'s."

    It may also cause an implicature derived from the addressee’s belief that the speaker is flouting the maxim quality.

  • In the following exchange, the obvious falsehood of B’s utterance implicates that B is saying that A is wildly incorrect:

  • A: Tehran’s in Turkey, isn’t it, teacher?
  • B: And London’s in Armenia, I suppose.

Source:

Levinson 1983 105, 110

Generic
A quality implicature is a kind of
Sources

Grice 1975 46

Levinson 1983 105–106, 109–110

What is a quantifier?

Definition

A quantifier is a determiner that expresses a referent 's definite or indefinite number or amount.

A quantifier functions as a

Examples (English)
  • all

    All are welcome

    All these people

  • five
  • many
  • some
Kind
Here is a kind of quantifier:
Generic
A quantifier is a kind of
Sources

Crystal 1980 293

Hartmann and Stork 1972 190

Lyons 1977b 454–455

Mish 1991 963

What is a quantity implicature?

Definition

A quantity implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressee 's assumption as to whether the speaker is observing or flouting the conversational maxim of quantity .

If the speaker is assumed to be observing the maxim, then the addressee makes a standard implicature . If the speaker is assumed to be flouting the maxim, then the addressee makes a more non-standard type of implicature.

Examples (English)
  • The utterance Nigel has 14 children commonly implicates ‘Nigel has only 14 children’, even though it would be compatible with Nigel’s having 20 children.

    Source:

    Levinson 1983 106

  • The utterance War is war is itself uninformative; however, depending on its context, it will implicate items such as the following:

    • ‘All war is undifferentiated (and thus uniformally unjust).’
    • ‘This is the way war is; stop complaining.’
Adapted from:

Levinson 1983 110–111

Kinds
Here are some kinds of quantity implicatures:
Generic
A quantity implicature is a kind of
Sources

Grice 1975 45

Levinson 1983 106, 110–111

What is a question?

Definition

Here are two senses of question:

  1. A question is an illocutionary act that has a directive illocutionary point of attempting to get the addressee to supply information.
  2. A question is a sentence type that has a form (labeled interrogative ) typically used to express an illocutionary act with the directive illocutionary point mentioned above. It may be actually so used (as a direct illocution ), or used rhetorically.
Examples (English)

Here are some examples of sentences, ordered to illustrate the two senses of question above:

  1. An illocutionary act that attempts to obtain information from an addressee

    • Tell me your name.
    • Give me your address.
  2. Sentences with inverted word order or interrogative pro-forms

    • What’s your name?
    • Did you sleep well?
Kinds
Here are some kinds of questions:
Generic
A question is a kind of
Sources

Crystal 1985 254

Hartmann and Stork 1972 190

Larson 1984 234

Mish 1991 966

What is a quotative evidential?

Definition

A quotative evidential is an evidential that signals that someone else is the source of the statement made.

Example (Shipibo)
cai-ronqui reocoocainyantanque
going_QUOTATIVE he_turned_over
‘Reportedly, while he was going (in his boat), he turned over.’
Source:

Faust 1973

Generic
A quotative evidential is a kind of
Sources

Chung and Timberlake 1985 244

Nida 1949 169

Palmer 1986 7, 71

Dahl 1985 150–151

Faust 1973