Phonetics and Phonology


The organs of speech are arranged in all peoples in the same way. However, each language has its own peculiarities in the sound structure, its own ways of pronouncing sounds and phrases. Each language is characterized by a certain way of speech organs and has its own characteristics in the intonation of the sentence.

Unlike the Russian language, voiced consonants in English at the end of words and before deaf consonants are not deafened . Voicedness - deafness in English are a semantic feature , i.e. distinguishes one word from another:

bad (bad) - bat (bat)

Voiceless consonants at the end of words are pronounced very energetically. Voiced consonants are pronounced less energetically, especially at the end of words. In Russian, voiced consonants at the end of words and before a voiceless consonant are stunned: du b , se v.

Most English stop and stop-fricative consonants [t, d, n, l, s, z, tʃ , dʒ ] are formed when the tip of the tongue touches the alveoli. Most Russian front-lingual consonants [t, d, n, l] are dental. For example:

[tin] tin - shadow [dei] day - day [leit] late - years [neim] name - no

In English pronunciation, a tense and drawn-out articulation of some vowels and a relaxed and short pronunciation of others are clearly distinguished. For example:

[nit - ni:t] [luk - lu:z] [k ʌ m - ka:m]

In Russian, there is no opposition of words in longitude and brevity. In English there are long sounds that are pronounced tense and drawn out, while short vowels are relaxed and short:

[u - u:] [i: -i ]

Longitude in transcription is indicated by a colon after the vowel. Longitude - brevity distinguish one word from another . For example:

[ ful ] full - [ fu:l ] fool
[ liv ] live - [ li: v ] leave
[ k ʌ t ] cut - [ ka: t ] cart

In Russian, longitude - brevity does not carry a semantic load. Sounds are contrasted by hardness - softness :

corner -
ate coal - spruce
nose - carried

And also for deafness - sonority :

path - be
that - house
cathedral - fence

In English, consonants are not softened .

In English, there are diphthongs (di - two, phthong - sound), which are indivisible sounds . The first part of the diphthong "core" is pronounced quite clearly, the second part is a slide in the direction of sounds [ i ] or [ ə ]. In addition, there are vowels consisting of three elements: [ aiə ], [ auə ]. There are no diphthongs in Russian. Combinations of the sounds "oh, hey, ah" are not diphthongs.

The pronunciation of most English vowels is carried out with a flat lip style , i.e. the corners of the lips are slightly drawn to the sides, and the lips do not round or protrude. For example:

[pen] pen [si:v] sieve [kout] coat

And finally, in English there are sounds that are not in Russian:

  • interdental sounds [ ð, θ ]. For example:

[θik] thick - thick [θin] thin - thin [ðei] they - they [ðis] this - this

  • labial sound [ w ]. For example:

[ weit ] wait - wait [ wi: ] we - we [ wai ] why - why

  • nasal sound [ ŋ ] For example:

[siŋ] sing - sing [s ɔ ŋ] song - song [raitiŋ] writing - writing

  • sound [ r ] For example:

[rait] write - write [rout] wrote - wrote [`rivə] river - river

  • sound [ ə: ], in which the way of the language is used, which is not characteristic of the Russian language. For example:

[ə:li] early - early [gə:l] girl - girl [tə:n] turn - turn

In English, articulation , i.e. the pronunciation of vowels is almost unaffected by consonants. The vowel is the leading sound in articulation . In this regard, it is recommended that when setting up an English pronunciation, combine as many different consonants as possible with a vowel sound. In Russian, the articulation of vowels largely depends on the hardness or softness of neighboring consonants: vol - led; nose - carried.