Are you confused about what to study in TOEFL writing? Unlike TOEIC, which is completed in a mark sheet format, TOEFL has the problem of writing English by yourself and requiring persuasive essay skills. Some people may find it difficult to take measures against writing, but in this article, we will explain the tendency of problems in writing and the points of answers, so it is possible to learn the secrets of writing English sentences to aim for a high score. I can do it. Please refer to it.
TOEFL writing has two patterns of questions
In TOEFL writing, there are two types of questions: an "Integrated task" that organizes the information given in reading and listening and states the main points, and an "Independent task" that logically states one's own assertions. There are 30 points in total.
"Grammar, quantity, content" is important for TOEFL writing measures
TOEFL writing emphasizes three points: grammar, quantity, and content. First, incorrect grammar is a definite deduction. If you are aiming for around 20 points steadily, do not challenge too complicated grammar and do the basics faithfully.
The appropriate number of characters is 150 to 225 words for the Integrated task and 300 to 350 words for the Independent task. When practicing, practice typing within the time limit. The large number of characters does not necessarily lead to a score.
The quality of the content is also important. The Integrated task captures the information given by reading and listening and summarizes the main points. At this time, it is important not to express your own opinion, but to correctly understand what is being asked and answer. Independent task should logically state your opinion on the question with concrete examples. Detailed notes will be explained later.
Integrated task that makes full use of 3 English skills
The Integrated task requires reading and listening skills, as well as the ability to summarize and organize information. The details of the exam will be explained below, and in the second half, we will introduce the answer template that can be used in the actual exam, so please refer to it.
Overview of Integrated task
In the Integrated task, information on one theme is given in English and by voice, and the essay is written based on the two contents. Many of the themes are highly specialized, such as those handled at universities, and cover a wide range of issues such as politics, economics, and environmental issues.
The exam begins with a three-minute reading of the English text, followed by listening to a lecture that disagrees with the content. Then, the flow is to summarize and describe the two contents. Be careful not to write your own opinions and thoughts as they are not questioned. Reading and listening discuss different opinions on the same subject.
You can see the reading part during the writing time, but you can only listen once. Make a note of what you are saying in your reading and why you are refuting it.
Leading part of Integrated task
In the reading part, a sentence consisting of four paragraphs of 50 to 70 words is presented. In the first paragraph, the author's claim is stated, and in the second to fourth paragraphs, the reason is developed. Since reading is almost this flow, you can guess where the claim or reason is written from the position of the paragraph.
The reading time is 3 minutes, and let's take a look at the themes being discussed, the author's claims, and the rationale for them. It is recommended that you make a note of four items, "Claim / Ground 1, Ground 2, Ground 3", as it will be easier to organize compared to the subsequent listening information. Passages can be checked while answering. If you're not confident in your reading, focus on getting a rough idea of what you're doing for listening, rather than understanding the details from the beginning.
Listening part of Integrated task
In the listening part, the same theme as reading, but different opinions are developed. In the form of a lecture in which the professor speaks alone, he / she will give his / her dissenting opinions to the "claim, ground 1, ground 2, ground 3" in the reading. When taking notes, be aware of which item corresponds to which item. The listening broadcast time is 2-3 minutes. Broadcast only once, so be careful not to miss the above four items.
Examples of solutions for integrated tasks and applicable flows
In writing, the question is "how do you argue against English in the lecture?" The answer should include reading and listening information on a one-to-two basis.
Introducing the answer template that can be used in the Integrated task. The answer will be written in the flow of "confirmation of topic, item 1, item 2, item 3" as follows. While looking at the "claims, grounds 1, grounds 2, and grounds 3" that you wrote down in reading and listening, present each claim in [Confirmation of topic], and based on what reason the listening part is in [Item]. If you are refuting the passage, or use 25 to 50 words as a guide, summarize items 1 to 3. At the beginning of each paragraph, the flow continues, such as "In the beginning, the article states that. However, the instructor argues that." However, as shown below, try to change the expression each time. prize. It leads to an evaluation of the quality of the content.
article expresses the opinion that 〇〇 with has three reasons. (This article expresses the opinion that 〇〇 with three reasons.)
The lecturer, however, has argued against this on different grounds. ( However, the instructor argues against this for another reason.)
In the beginning, the passage states that 〇〇. (In the beginning, the passage says
〇〇.) However, the lecturer rejects this hypothesis in terms of 〇〇. I deny this hypothesis from the point.)
Secondly, the passage also states the claim that 〇〇. (Next, the
lecturer's part contrasts in that the claim is 〇〇. It will be a contrast in that it is 〇.)
Finally, the passages gave their opinions about the idea of 〇〇. (Finally, the passages gave 〇〇 opinions about the idea of 〇〇.)
The lecturer, on the other hand, clearly rejected this with the opinion that 〇〇. (On the other hand, the instructor clearly denied this with the opinion that 〇〇.)
Things to watch out for in the Integrated task
The integrated task requires a correct understanding of the reading and listening part. Do not include your own subjectivity, and properly summarize what is being issued. For example, don't put the impression that "I was keenly aware of the problem when I was working part-time at a polling place" in the claim that "the existing voting system has a problem in terms of labor".
Also, devise note-taking to capture the information in the listening part. The recommendation is to make the outline of "claim, ground 1, ground 2, ground 3" when you read the reading part. Information is easy to organize and answers are easy to summarize.
Finally, try to paraphrase as much as possible when summarizing. In particular, if you copy the contents of the reading part in full, it will be difficult to appeal the understanding of the contents. In order to improve the quality of English sentences, it is advisable to make a habit of changing the expression from the task sentences from the time of practice.
Independent writing to express opinions logically
The Independent task is a problem that is challenged at the end of the TOEFL test, and many people are not good at making logical statements in long sentences. Let's get the hang of it here and aim for a high score.
Overview of Independent task
The Independent task describes the answerer's own opinion on the presented theme in 30 minutes. The standard number of characters is 300 to 350 words. However, if there is a problem with the content such as no conclusion or logic failure, even if the number of characters is sufficient, points will be deducted. In Independent tasks, pay particular attention to quality rather than quantity.
The question format is an alternative format that answers agree or disagree to the theme, a free description format that gives three opinions on one theme, and in recent years, one of the three options that is close to one's own claim is selected. There is also an alternative format.
All of them have the same issues to be held, such as "which opinion I chose," "reason for choosing," and "counter-argument to the allegations that I did not choose." Learn a compelling way of arguing while referring to the example answers below.
Independent task Answer flow example
It is recommended to describe the Independent task in the flow of "claim, reason 1, reason 2, reason 3, conclusion". You can logically develop your claim by first clearly presenting your opinion in [Claim], raising three reasons for your opinion in [Reason], and giving a summary in [Conclusion]. Let's check the specific flow with the following answer example. The example discusses the question in favor of it.
Q: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
“Life today is easier and more comfortable than it was when your grandparents were children.” (“Grandparents were children.” Life is easier and more comfortable now than it used to be. ")
There are certain things that have been lost as our lives have become richer. (Agree side)
Yet, in truth, it is It was easier and more comfortable today than it was when our grandparents were children. (Still, in fact, it's easier and more comfortable today than when our grandparents were children.)
Generalization of the information society Firstly, the information society has become more generalized, with instant access to information on personal devices. bottom.)
Secondly, the development of land and sea routes created a logistics network that allowed people to get what they wanted quickly. The net is ready.)
[Reason 3] Improving public health
Finally, water supply and sewerage systems and increased awareness of hygiene have greatly improved the living environment. )
The ease and comfort of the environment have not come without their downsides, but it has certainly improved our lives. You can say.)
Things to watch out for independent tasks
In the reason part of the Independent task, try to write both objective and subjective examples. For example, regarding "generalization of the information-oriented society" in Reason 1 of the previous answer example, "the penetration rate of smartphones in Japan is almost 100%" as an objective example, and "getting a smartphone" as a subjective example. You can put in two types, "when you really feel the convenience". The examples given for reasons do not necessarily have to be true.
TOEFL writing requires accurate English proficiency and persuasive logical development. If you are new to writing essays and essays, practice developing your claims in Japanese before English.