I think there are many people who started learning English again after becoming a member of society. However, I often hear people say that it is difficult to take time to study because of the balance with work. I wish I could study efficiently. It is recommended that such a person first solidify the basics of grammar. Once you learn grammar, you will be able to understand some English. This time, I will explain the 5 sentence patterns in English. Even if you didn't understand well when you were a student, take this opportunity to deepen your understanding.
Sentence pattern is important! The reason is?
Sentence pattern is an English sentence pattern. There are roughly five sentence patterns. It may be a word you don't usually hear, but it's actually very important. This is because learning English will proceed more smoothly if you understand the sentence pattern. You will be able to guess the meaning of a word from the sentence pattern, and you will be able to read English by phrase instead of by word. Then, the speed of reading English sentences will be faster, and it will be advantageous for tests such as TOEIC.
Elements that make up the five English sentence patterns
The main elements that make up the five English sentence patterns are S (subject), V (verb), O (object), and C (complement). In addition, there are Ms (modifiers) that are not counted as elements. Here, I will introduce what each of them is, one by one with the corresponding part of speech.
Explanation of S (subject) and corresponding part of speech
S is used as an element that represents the subject from the acronym "subject". Nouns and pronouns apply to the part of "-ga ... suru" that corresponds to "-ga". For example, I, He, Taro, Mary, etc. are S. In English, a sentence always requires a subject, so S is included in all five sentence patterns.
V (verb) description and corresponding part of speech
V stands for verb from the acronym "verb". There are be verbs such as is and are and general verbs such as do and play. It is basically used immediately after S (subject). Like S, V is an element that is always used in all five sentence patterns.
Explanation of C (complement) and corresponding part of speech
C is an element that represents a complement from the acronym "complement", and basically nouns, pronouns, and adjectives apply. For example, my husband, him, cute, tired, etc. that come after V [verb). C is used in the 2nd and 5th sentence patterns. It is mainly placed immediately after V or after O. It is an element that supplements the meaning of a sentence, so it is not always included in every sentence. I will explain in detail how to use it later.
Explanation of O (object) and corresponding part of speech
O is used as an element that represents the object from the initial letter of "object". Nouns and pronouns apply to the part of "..." that corresponds to "...". For example, me, her, cat, etc.
O is used in the 3rd, 4th and 5th sentence patterns. It is not used in sentences that make sense without an object.
Explanation of M (modifier) and how to distinguish it
The English text may contain an element called M. M has a modifier meaning from the acronym "Modifier" and has the role of adding explanations to each element of S, V, O, and C. The point to note here is that M cannot be an element of a sentence. It is not counted as an element of the sentence pattern. Think of it as an adverb. I will explain with the following example sentences.
When Tom went to school, he bowed politely to the teacher. (Tom politely bowed to the teacher when he went to school.)
First of all, When Tom went to school in the first half means "when Tom went to school", which means "when" and is an M that modifies the whole sentence.
In the second half, you can see that the pronoun he is S and bowed is V. politely is an adverb and to the teacher is a prepositional phrase, M that modifies bowed and explains how he bowed. Since M does not count as an element of the sentence pattern, all that remains is he bowed (SV), which means that this sentence is the first sentence pattern.
What are the five sentence patterns in English?
The five sentence patterns in English are classified according to the arrangement of the elements introduced above. There are five patterns, which are called the first sentence pattern, the second sentence pattern, the third sentence pattern, the fourth sentence pattern, and the fifth sentence pattern, respectively. From here, I will explain how to distinguish each with example sentences.
1st sentence pattern ｜ SV (subject / verb)
First, I will explain the first sentence pattern. The first sentence pattern is a sentence pattern consisting of only two SVs (subjects and verbs). It's the simplest sentence pattern, so it's relatively easy to understand.
Overview of SV and how to distinguish it
The first sentence pattern is expressed in the word order of S → V (subject/verb). The point is whether V is an intransitive verb. Intransitive verbs are verbs that do not require an object, such as go and walk.
Also, M may be inserted after SV. Please note that the first sentence pattern is not necessarily a two-word sentence. The verb is often followed by the preposition + noun form, which is the element of M, in which case the verb is likely to be an intransitive verb. Since M is not included in the elements of the sentence pattern, please consider it separately.
SV example sentence
The girl laughed. (The girl laughed.)
This is the simplest form of the first sentence pattern. Please note that the tense does not matter when judging the sentence pattern.
He goes to the hospital.
To the hospital is included as a modifier that expresses the destination in the form of a preposition + noun, but since He goes. Is also a sentence, this is also the first sentence pattern.
Type 2｜SVC (Subject, Verb, Complement)
Next, I will introduce the second sentence pattern. The second sentence pattern is a sentence pattern composed of three elements: SVC (subject, verb, complement). There are more elements, but it's relatively easy to tell.
Overview of SVC and how to distinguish it
The second sentence pattern is in the word order of S → V → C (subject/verb/complement), which means that “S is in the state of C (V)”. The point to distinguish is that the relationship of S = C is established. Most of the sentences that use the be verb and the sentences that use verbs called "perceptual verbs" that express what you feel visually or auditorily, such as look, seem, and feel, are the second sentence patterns.
SVC example sentence
She looks very sad. (She looks very sad.)
In this sentence, the relationship S (She) = C (sad) holds, so it can be judged that it is the second sentence pattern. Since very is an adverb, it is treated as an M that is not an element of the sentence.
She feels happy about that.
This is also the second sentence pattern that holds the relationship S (She) = C (happy). The set of "preposition + noun" of about that is M, so it is not an element of the sentence.
Type 3｜SVO (Subject, Verb, Target Language)
The third sentence pattern is a sentence pattern composed of three elements: SVO (subject, verb, object). At first glance, it is similar to the second sentence pattern, but there is a point to distinguish it, so let's hold it down.
Overview of SVO and how to distinguish it
The third sentence pattern is the word order of S → V → O (subject/verb/object), which means that “S makes O (or O) V”. The point of distinguishing is that only transitive verbs can be included in V of the third sentence pattern. Transitive verbs are verbs that require an object, such as have, live, and follow.
Similar to the second sentence pattern, there is a pattern in which a noun is placed after the V. It should be noted here that the second sentence pattern has an S = C relationship, while the third sentence pattern does not have an equal relationship. If you are wondering whether it is the second sentence pattern or the third sentence pattern, consider the relationship between S and OC.
SVO example sentence
I have a lot of books.
a lot of is an M that qualifies the book. Modifiers are not included in the sentence pattern elements, so truncating them reveals the third sentence pattern of S (I) V (have) O (books).
She lived a life of luxury. (She lived a life of luxury.)
This is also the third sentence pattern of S (She) V (lived) O (a life), and of luxury is M that modifies life. The verb is lived and the past tense, but the tense has nothing to do with the sentence pattern.
Type 4｜SVOO (Subject, Verb, Target Language, Target Language)
The fourth sentence pattern is a sentence pattern composed of four elements: SVOO (subject, verb, object 1, object 2). The number of elements has increased and it has become a little complicated. Here, we will introduce the outline of the 4th sentence pattern and how to distinguish it with example sentences.
Overview of SVOO and how to distinguish it
The fourth sentence pattern is in the word order of S → V → O1 → O2 (subject, verb, object 1, object 2), which means “S makes O2 V to O1”. The characteristic of this sentence pattern is that there are two O's.
As explained in the third sentence pattern, V is a transitive verb because there is O, and teach, give, buy, etc. are often used. If V is followed by two nouns, it is a good idea to mark it as the fourth sentence pattern. Furthermore, the two Os in the 4th sentence pattern have the relationship "O1 ≠ O2". This is a big difference from the 5th sentence pattern explained next, and it will be a point to distinguish, so let's hold it down.
SVOO example sentence
The teacher taught students mathematics. (The teacher taught students mathematics.)
taught (teach) means "teach O1 to O2", and both students and mathematics are the objects of taught. It becomes S (The teacher) V (taught) O1 (students) O2 (mathematics) and is the 4th sentence pattern. The relationship of O1 (students) ≠ O2 (mathematics) also applies.
My parents gave me a new car on my birthday. (My parents gave me a new car on my birthday.)
gave (give) means "give O2 to O1", and both me and a new car are the objects of give. This is the 4th sentence pattern represented by S (My parents) V (gave) O1 (me) O2 (a new car). Since on my birthday is a modifier and M, it does not affect the sentence pattern.
Type 5｜SVOC (Subject, Verb, Target Language, Complement)
It is finally the last sentence pattern. The fifth sentence pattern is a sentence pattern composed of SVOC (subject, verb, object, complement). Like the 4th sentence pattern, it has 4 elements, but C is used instead of O. Let's firmly suppress the difference from the 4th sentence pattern.
Overview of SVOC and how to distinguish it
The fifth sentence pattern is in the word order of S → V → O → C (subject, verb, object, complement), and it is said that "S is V for O to be C" or "S is V for O to be C". Represents the meaning. V is a transitive verb because there is an O.
The 4th sentence pattern takes two objects, while the 5th sentence pattern is characterized by taking one object and one complement. Also, while the 4th sentence pattern is O1 ≠ O2, the 5th sentence pattern holds the relationship of O = C.
SVOC example sentence
Everyone call me John. (Everyone calls me John.)
After V (call), me, John, pronouns and nouns follow, and the relationship of me = John holds, so you can see that it is the fifth sentence pattern.
I will make you happy. (I will make you happy.)
V (make) is followed by the pronoun you and the adjective "happy". Since the relationship you = happy also holds, it can be judged that it is the fifth sentence pattern. It is a futuristic sentence in which will is used, but the tense does not affect the sentence pattern.
This time, I explained in detail the 5 sentence patterns. Understanding the 5 sentence patterns will deepen your understanding of learning English, so keep it in mind. However, it is quite difficult to fully understand the five sentence patterns and English grammar. After becoming a member of society, I started studying again, but many people were frustrated. How about learning through English conversation for such a person?
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