Phonetics deals with the description, reproduction of sounds (phonemes) that are used in speech, as well as the study of signs that transmit them (transcriptional symbols) - i.e. the practical side of speech. Phonology studies the functioning of sounds in a language, their organization and relationships, i.e. the abstract side of sounds. Both disciplines should be studied in combination.
Articulators (articulators) - different parts of the vocal tract: tongue (tongue): 5 parts: tip (tip), front part (blade), middle part (front), back part (back) and root (root), teeth (upper and lower teeth), lips (lips), alveolar arch (alveolar ridge), hard palate (hard palate), soft palate (velum or soft palate).
The 6 organs of speech described above are the main ones, but it is important to remember four more: these are the larynx (larynx), pharynx (pharynx) (an elongated area above the larynx that passes into the nasal cavity), jaws (jaws) (because during speech the lower jaw moves actively) and the nose and nasal cavity (nasal cavity) (involved in the formation of nasal consonants).
The soft palate can be touched with the back of the tongue, for example, during the pronunciation of the velar consonants k, g and ŋ.
The sounds resulting from the contact of the tongue and the alveoli are called alveolar sounds (for example: t, d, s, z, n, l).
When the tongue and teeth come into contact, anterior lingual dental sounds (dental sounds [θ] and [ð]) are obtained.
Lips can interact with teeth (sounds f, v - labiodental sounds, or labiodental sounds), can be rounded for pronunciation [u:].
Lips can be compressed (to pronounce p, b, m, w - labial sounds, or bilabial sounds).
The soft palate can descend to allow air to escape through the nasal cavity (when pronouncing the nasal sounds m, n, ŋ), or rise to allow air to escape through the mouth.
Vowels differ from each other according to the following criteria:
1) the rise of the tongue (the vertical distance between the surface of the tongue and the palate). If you take a mirror and pronounce the long vowel i: (as in the word “see”), and then the vowel æ (as in the word “cat”), you can see that the distance between the surface of the tongue and the palate in the second case is much greater. The vowels i: and æ differ in the rise of the tongue, so the first vowel refers to the high vowels (close) and the second to the low vowels (open).
2) a series of language (part of the language involved in articulation). The front of the tongue is involved in the articulation of the two previous sounds, so i: and æ are called front vowels (front). Sounds that raise the back of the tongue when articulated are called back vowels. If you pronounce the sounds æ and α: (as in the word “calm”) in front of a mirror, you can clearly see this.
3) the position of the lips (lip-rounding). In total, three groups are distinguished:
-lips are rounded (rounded) (for example, sound:);
-lips are stretched (spread) as for a smile (sound i:);
- neutral position of the lips (neutral) (sound ɜ:).
10. How many short vowels are there in the English language? What are they? give examples.
There are 7 short vowels in English: ɪ, e, æ, ʌ, ɒ, ʊ, ə. All of them are relatively short, their length depends on the position in the word. All short vowels have the characteristic lax (i.e., the organs of speech are not tense):
This section presents 5 long vowels: i:, ɜ:, ɑ:, ɔ:, u:.
[i:] (in the words “meet”, “peace”) The vowel is higher and more front than the short [ɪ] in the words “bit”, “fish”. Lips stretched (close, front, spread, long, tense)
[ɜ:] (“bird”, purse) Mid-rise and middle vowel, often used in speech to express doubt (in writing it is reflected as “er”). Lips remain neutral (open-mid, central, neutral, long, tense)
[ɑ:] (“card”, “pass”) Open back vowel with neutral lip position (open, back-advanced, unrounded, long, tense)
[ɔ:] (“board”, “torn) Rounded open back vowel (open-mid, back, rounded, long, tense)
[u:] (“food”, “soon”) Rounded closed back vowel (close, back, rounded, long, tense)
The length of all English vowels depends on the environment (namely the sound following the vowels) and the presence or absence of stress.
In word stress, vowel length can change especially in long monophthongs and diphthongs. Positional vowel length depends on some factors.
The same sound is pronounced longest at word ends, shortens before voiced consonants and shortens most before voiceless consonants. But its quality stays the same as in “knee-need-niece” [ni:-ni:d-ni:s], “pie-pine-pipe” [pai-pain-paip]. In short vowels, positional length changes are deepest in [æ] extended before voiced consonants especially [b], [d], [g].
The same vowel sounds longer when stressed as in “Carl” [ka:l] – “carnation” [ka:'nei∫n].
Vowel length also depends on a stressed syllable tone. A low fall tone syllable sounds shorter while a low rise prolongs it as in “May” [˛mei]-[¸mei]. Stressed vowels in words pronounced with a complex tone ending (like a fall-rise) sound longer – [ˇmei].
Diphthongs (diphthongs) - sounds containing a transition from one vowel sound to another (as opposed to "pure" vowels, or pure vowels). The first part of the diphthong is much stronger, longer and louder than the second. This must be remembered so as not to pronounce the second part of the diphthong too clearly. Despite the fact that graphically a diphthong consists of two elements, it is one phoneme, one sound, one syllable.
Examples of words with centraling diphthongs:
[ɪə] –beard, Ian, fierce
[eə] –aired, cairn, scarce
[ʊə] –moored, tour
Examples of words with closing diphthongs:
.[eɪ] –paid, pain, face
[ɔɪ] –void, loin, voice
[əʊ] –load, home, most
[aʊ] –loud, gown, house
[aɪ] –tide, time, nice
Tripthongs (triphthongs) imply a quick and continuous transition from one vowel to another, and then to a third. In fact, triphthongs are 5 centring diphthongs with [ə] at the end:
a)e ɪ+ ə= e ɪə(“layer”, “player”)
a ɪ+ ə= a ɪə(“liar”, “fire”)
ɔɪ+ ə= ɔɪə(“loyal”, “royal”)
b) əʊ+ ə= əʊə(“lower”, “mower”)
a ʊ+ ə= a ʊə(“power”, “hour”)
There are 6 explosive consonants in English: p, t, k, b, d, g. All 6 explosive consonants can occur in the initial position (initial position), between other sounds (medial position) and at the end of the word (final position), i.e. have unlimited distribution.
Pb, td, kg pairs differ in sonority/deafness. Initial position: p, t, k are pronounced with aspiration (aspirated), however, in the position afters, aspiration does not occur. b, d, g are partially stunned (have little voicing or partly devoiced). Middle position: The pronunciation of p, t, k and b, d, g depends on whether the previous and subsequent syllables are stressed, and depending on this they have the characteristics of a stop consonant in the initial or final position. Final position: p, t, k - deaf, pronounced without aspiration. b, d, g are partly devoiced.
The air rushes out, producing a sound similar to the sound h. This effect is called aspiration, or aspiration (aspiration), [p, t, k], these phonemes are pronounced with aspiration (aspiration).
Some phoneticians instead of the terms "deaf-voiced" use the terms "strong-weak", because they believe that p, t, k, ʧ are pronounced with greater force, i.e. they are strong (fortis = strong), and b, d, g, ʤ are pronounced with less force, that is, they are weak (lenis = weak).
An allophone is a variant of the pronunciation of a phoneme due to its phonetic environment.
There are 2 types of transcription: phonemic (phonemic) and phonetic (phonetic). In phonemic transcription, we only use transcription symbols that represent a particular phoneme (e.g., as in a regular dictionary). In phonetic transcription, we also indicate some other characteristics of this phoneme, for example, the presence of aspiration, shortening of the vowel before voiceless consonants, etc..(i.e. we describe specific allophones).
When pronouncing sibilant consonants, air passes through a small hole, producing a sibilant sound.
f / v - labio-dental (lower lip touches the upper teeth). They have unlimited distribution (they are found in the initial, middle, and final positions).
Θ, ð - dental (dental) (the tip of the tongue is slightly extended between the teeth, air passes into the gap between the teeth and the tongue). They have unlimited distribution.
s / z - alveolar (alveolar) (tip of the tongue touches the alveoli). They have unlimited distribution.
ʃ / Ʒ - palatal-alveolar (palatal-alveolar) (the tip of the tongue is slightly pushed back behind the alveoli). has a limited distribution (limiteddis-tribution). Most often, Ʒ occurs in the middle position, and much less often in the initial and final (most of these words are borrowed).
Affricates are complex sounds that begin as plosives and end as sibilants. There are two of them in English: ʧ and ʤ. They are pronounced with the same articulator (the tip of the tongue on the alveoli, that is, it is forelingual palato-alveolar affricates). ʧ and ʤ are single independent phonemes, while they have the characteristics of explosive and sibilant consonants: ʧ (fortis) in the initial position is pronounced with aspiration and shortens the vowel standing in front of it; ʤ (lenis) in initial and final position is partially stunned.
There are three nasal sonants in English: m, n and ŋ. The main characteristic of the nasal is that air passes through the nasal cavity, while the soft palate is lowered. M and n have unlimited distribution. m - labial-labial sound (bilabial), n - anterior lingual alveolar (forelingual alveolar). ŋ - posterior lingual velar sonant (backlingual velar). This sound has a limited distribution - it never occurs in the initial position. In the middle position, it has certain characteristics. ŋ never occurs after long vowels and diphthongs.
When a side sonant is pronounced, the tip of the tongue is on the alveoli, air passes along the sides of the tongue. This sonant has unlimited distribution. L has the following allophones: dark L (darkl) occurs in the final position and before consonants, the back of the tongue is raised: light l (clearl) occurs before vowels, the front of the tongue is raised. For example, in the word “peell” it has a dark shade, and in the word “lip” it has a light shade. As mentioned above, after p, t, k in a stressed syllable, L is stunned.
Approximants are sounds during the articulation of which the articulators approach each other, but do not close completely.
There are some English accents (eg American, Scottish, East English accent) in which r also occurs before consonants and at the end of a word. This accent is called rhotic. An accent in which r occurs only before vowels is called non-rhotic.
Phonetically, they are similar to vowels, because the articulation of j is the same as that of the vowel [i:], and the articulation of w is the same as that of the vowel [u:]. Phonologically, j and w are consonants, because, first, they occur only before vowels; and secondly, if the noun begins with these sounds, then we use the article “a” (not “an”), for example, away, a year. At the place of articulation w-labial-labial (bilabial) sonant; j - middle-lingual (medio-lingual) palatal (palatal) sonant.
In explosive consonants (plosives) Hissing
fricative consonants (fricatives)
Nasal sonants (nasals)
Lateral (lateral) sonant (lateral) L
W, j, r
Weak syllables as a center can have the following options:
1) the vowel [ə] (“seam”, English “schwa”);
2) a closed unrounded front vowel in the range between [i:] and [ɪ];
3) a closed rounded back vowel in the range between [u:] and [υ];
4) syllabic (i.e. syllabic) consonant
2) in cases where suffixes or endings starting with a vowel are added to the words described above, while the desired syllable is written through “i”, “y” or “ey”: “happier” ['hæpiə], “easiest” [ 'i:ziəst], “hurrying” ['hʌriɪŋ];
3) in prefixes ending in “e” (such as “re-“, “pre-“, “de-“), if they are followed by a vowel, and the prefix itself is unstressed: “react” [ri'ækt ], “preoccupied” [pri'ɒkjυpaɪd], “deactivate” [di'æktɪveɪt];
4) in the suffixes “iate”, “ious”: “appreciate” [ə'pri:∫ieɪt], hilarious [hɪ'leəriəs];
5) in the following service words, when they are pronounced without stress: “he” [hi], “she” [∫i], “we” [wi], “me” [mi], “be” [bi], and also in the word “the” [ði],
2) in the service words “through” [Өru] and “who” [hu] - in all unstressed positions (regardless of the sound following them);
3) inside the word - if “u” is written, without stress, followed by another vowel: “evacuation” [ɪvækju'eɪ∫n], “influenza” [ɪnflu'enzə].
1) the classic case is a two-syllable word, at the end of which is a consonant + the letter combination “le”;
2) Another spelling in the case of the syllabic [l] is when at the end of a word, one or two consonants are followed by the letter combination “al” or “el”, for example: “petal”.
The syllabic [n] is most common after alveolar plosives and fricative consonants. At the same time, in the case when it comes after the sound [t] or [d], the so-called nasal explosion (nasal release) takes place - when, when pronouncing the sounds [tn] or [dn] in succession, we do not tear the tongue from the alveoli for implementation of the explosion at [t] / [d], and, keeping the tongue pressed to the alveoli, we simply lower the soft palate at the end of the pronunciation of the explosive, for example, as in the word “eaten” [i: tn], as a result of which the compressed air exits through nasal cavity, and the explosion of the sounds [t] / [d] turns out to be “nasal”.
Syllabic [n] after non-alveolar consonants is less common: - if in a word in a final syllable after a velar consonant the letter combination “an” or “on” is written (for example, in the words “toboggan”, “wagon”), the pronunciation without the syllabic [n] is more common, i.e. [tə'bɒgən], ['wægən]; - after labial consonants, for example, as in the words “happen”, “ribbon”, both pronunciations are allowed: ['hæpən]/[hæpn], ['rɪbən]/[rɪbn]; - after the labiodental [f] and [v], the syllabic [n] is more common than the combination [ən] (unless it is the initial syllable in a word): the words “seven”, “heaven”, “often” are more often pronounced as [sevn], [hevn], [ɒfn] than ['sevən], ['hevən], ['ɒfən], although the latter are also possible. Syllabic [n] does not occur after [l], [t∫] and [dӡ].
The essence of stress is quite simple - anyone will agree, for example, that in the word "father" the stress is the first syllable, and in the word "perhaps" it is the second. In transcription, we mark the stressed syllable by placing a small vertical line directly in front of it, above it.
The distinctness and expressiveness that appears as a result of changing the pitch represents the strongest type of stress - the main stress ( primary stress ) . In some words, there is a type of stress that is weaker than the main one, but stronger than the first syllable in the word “around”: for example, in the first syllables of words such as “photographic” [fəυtə'græfɪk], “anthropology” [ænӨrə'pɒlədӡi] . The stress on the first syllables of these words will be called secondary stress . In addition to the main and secondary stress, there is also a third level of stress - unstressed syllable , which is the absence of any distinctness or expressiveness.
From the point of view of perception, all stressed syllables have one common characteristic - distinctness, or expressiveness (prominence). Stressed syllables are recognized as stressed precisely because they sound more distinct and expressive than unstressed ones.
1) whether the word is morphologically simple, complex as a result of the presence of one or more affixes (i.e. prefixes and / or suffixes) in it, or complex compound ( consisting of several bases);
2) the grammatical category to which the word belongs (noun, adjective, verb, etc.);
3) the number of syllables in a word;
4) the phonological structure of syllables in a word (Dactyl).
Affixes can affect stress in the following ways: 1) the affix receives the main stress, for example: "semicircle" [ˈsemiˌsɜːk(ə)l], "person" + "ality"= "personality" [ˌpɜːsəˈnæləti]; 2) the presence of an affix does not affect the stress in any way, for example: "pleasant" [ˈplez(ə)nt]-"unpleasant" [ʌnˈplez(ə)nt], "market" [ˈmɑːkɪt]-"marketing" [ˈmɑːkɪtɪŋ]; 3) the stem of the word remains stressed, but due to the affix it shifts to another syllable: "magnet" [ˈmæɡnɪt]-"magnetic" [mæɡˈnetɪk].
To determine the place of the main stress, it is necessary to pay attention to the part of speech of the words included in it: 1) noun + noun–main stress on the first syllable: 'typewriter, 'car-ferry,, for example: a) adjective +... ed bad-'tempered, half-'timbered, heavy-'handed.
There are several dozen disyllabic words with the same spelling, the stress in which depends on the part of the river belonging to the word (whether it is a noun, a verb or an adjective). All of them consist of a prefix and a base. In a verb, the stress will fall on the second syllable, and in a noun or adjective, on the first.
Some English words can be pronounced in two different ways, which are called strong and weak forms. For example, the word "that" can be read as ðæt (strong form): "I like that"; or ðət (weak form i.e. reduced): "I hope that she will". Almost all words that have a strong and weak form are functional words - words that do not have a dictionary meaning, unlike nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs. In total, there are about 40 such words in English, these include auxiliary verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, articles, some adverbs, etc.
1) at the end of a sentence , eg: the preposition “of” is usually pronounced in a weak form [əv]: I am fond of chips. aɪm ˈfɒndəv ˈtʃɪps But the same preposition is pronounced in full ɒv if it is at the end of the sentence: Chips are whatI'm fond of. ˈtʃɪps əwɒtaɪm ˈfɒnd ɒv. Some words can never be at the end of a sentence, such as “the”, “your”.
2) in case of contrast or opposition , for example: The letter's from him, not to him. ðəˈletəzˈfrɒmɪm| nɒtˈtu:ɪm I travel to and from London a lot. aɪˈtrævl ˈtu: ənˈfrɒmˈlʌndən əˈlɒt A work of and about literature. əˈwɜ:kˈɒvənəˈbaut ˈlɪtrɪtʃə
3) when a logical or semantic stress falls on these words : You must give me more money. juˈmʌstˈgɪv mi ˈmɔ: ˈmʌni
4) when quoted : You shouldn't put “and” at the end of a sentence. juˈʃʊdnt ˈpʊt ˈændətði ˈend əvðəˈsentəns. When function words beginning with the letter “h” (“her”, “have”) are at the beginning of a sentence, they are pronounced with the sound h; in other contexts this sound is usually not pronounced.
Rhythm is a regular alternation of any elements. English speech is very rhythmic, and the definition of isochronous rhythm ( stress - timed rhythm ) fits it , which means that stressed syllables appear at relatively regular intervals, regardless of whether there are unstressed sounds between them or not. In the example below, the numbers indicate stressed syllables, there are no unstressed syllables between syllables 1 and 2, syllables 2 and 3 are separated by one unstressed syllable, 3 and 4 by two, 4 and 5 by three: 1 2 3 4 5 ˈWalk ˈdown the ˈpath to the ˈend of the caˈnal. For the purposes of intonation analysis, a unit is required that is larger than a syllable in size, and such a unit is called a tone unit, or tone unit.
When one phoneme changes under the influence of the phonemes of a neighboring word, we are dealing with assimilation ( assimilation ) . Assimilation is characteristic of fast everyday speech and is most often associated with a change in consonants. It can be progressive and regressive. 1) t/d +θ/ ð -> t, d, as in “that thing” ðæt θɪŋ; “get those” et ðәʊz; “a bad thing”ә bæd θɪŋ 2)t + p / b / m -> p, as in “that person” ðæp pɜːsәn; “light blue” laɪp blu: d + p / b / m -> b, as in the words “a bad boy” ә bæb bɔɪ, “bad manners” bæb mænәz 3)t + k / g -> k, as in the words “that case” ðæk keɪs; “bright colour” braɪk ˈkʌlә. d + k / g -> g, as in “a bad girl”ә bæ gɜ:ln + k / g->ŋ, as in “a thin coat” ә θɪŋ kәʊt 4)s+ ʃ/ j ->ʃ , as in “this shoe” ðɪʃ ʃu: z+ ʃ/ j ->ʒ, as in “those years” ðәʊʒ jɪәz.
The disappearance of some sounds in connected speech under certain circumstances (i.e., there is a zero realization of the phoneme).
1) Loss of a weak vowel after p, t, k. The vowel in the first syllable in the words “potato”, “tomato”, “canary”, “perhaps”, “today” disappears, and the first consonant is aspirated: pʰˈteɪtәʊ; tʰˈmɑ:tәʊ; kʰˈneәri; pʰˈhæps; tʰˈdeɪ
2) Syllabic consonants n, l, r: “t o night” t n aɪt; “p o lice” pli:s; “c o rrect” k r ekt
3) Loss of sound in a cluster of consonants: “George the Sixth's throne” sɪk sθ rәʊn My frien d let me borrow his car. - does not carry a semantic load - explosive acc. Except for -> ikse ( p ) t for
4) Dropping v in “of” before consonants: “lots of them” lɒts ә ðәm 5) Grammar abbreviations: “had”, “would”: written 'd, pronounced d (after vowels), әd (after consonants): I'd aɪd, John'd dʒɒnәd, etc.
Linking r("linking r"); this sound cannot be at the end of a word in RP, but when a word ending in r is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, the r sound is pronounced, e.g. “here” hɪә BUT “here are” hɪә rә Many speakers languages use the sound r in the same way to connect words in which the letter “r” is not written, such a common phenomenon is called intrusive r (“wedging r ”): “Formula A” fɔ:mjәlә r eɪ“media event” mi:dɪә r ɪvant.
The general change in voice pitch can be called the term "tone" ( tone ) . One-syllable statement (utterance) - the shortest continuous segment of speech, at the end and at the beginning of which there is a pause. If an English speaker wants to say "yes" or "no" in an affirmative, agreeing manner, he will pronounce them with a falling tone. If he wants to pronounce these words in an interrogative manner – “yes?” “no?” – he will say them with a rising tone (rising tone).
The three simplest tones are static (level), descending (fall) and ascending (rise). To indicate tones, we use the following symbols, placed at the bottom before the stressed syllable: Static: _yes_no Falling: yesˎno Rising: ˏyesˏno More complex tones are also used in speech. These are, first of all, a falling-rising tone (fall-rise) and an ascending-descending tone (rise-fall).
Languages in which tone can determine the meaning of a word (i.e. a change in tone can completely change the meaning of a word) are called tone languages . For example, in Chinese (Beijing)
For the purposes of intonation analysis, a unit is required that is larger than a syllable in size, and such a unit is called a tone unit, or tone unit.
1. In addition to interrogative intonation, this tone also implies that the speaker has not finished his thought and now, perhaps, will say something else.
2. It also conveys the mood for contact and general goodwill towards the interlocutor.
3. Encouragement is also conveyed with the help of a rising tone.
5. Sometimes we ask a question not in order to find out something, but in this way trying to anticipate some new information.
Fall (falling tone) - completeness, certainty. If a person is asked a question and answers it with “yes” or “no” using a falling tone, this means that the answer is final and there is nothing more to add, and also that the speaker is not inclined to develop this topic further.
Rise-fall (ascending-descending tone) - surprise, indignation, strong impressions. This tone conveys very strong emotions, for example, complete agreement, categorical disagreement, surprise, indignation, etc.
Level (static tone) - monotony, routine procedures. In monosyllabic utterances, this tone means that you are saying something monotonous, predictable, and boring. A teacher reading one at a time the names of the students from the class register when checking attendance uses exactly this tone on each name, and the students in turn respond with the word “_yes”, also with the same tone, etc.
Attitude/evaluation function Intonation is used to convey our attitude towards what we say. At the same time, we can change the volume of the voice, the speed with which we pronounce the phrase, the pitch of the voice, facial expressions, gestures, body language. Emotions can be expressed both in relation to the interlocutor and in relation to the content of our statement. The same statement can be said as if you are happy, upset, angry, grateful, etc.
Accent intonation The term "accent" is used in the meaning of "accent". The accent itself does not depend on intonation, but the arrangement of tonic stress within the tone unit. This is the essence of the accent function of intonation. Setting tone stress is very important from a linguistic point of view. The most common position of a stressed syllable is on the last lexically important word, i.e. noun, adjective, verb, adverb. She was wearing a red dress. (She wasn't wearing a green dress).
1. The correct choice of tone depending on the type of sentence
2. The boundaries of the tone unit indicate to the listener the grammatical structure of the utterance.
1. Affirmative sentences (statements)–Fall
2. General questions (general, yes/no questions)–Rise
3. Special questions (special, wh-questions)–Fall
4. Alternative questions (alternative, or-questions)–Rise- fall (first part - rise; second part - fall)
5. Disjunctive questions (tail, disjunctive questions) - the first part of the question is fall, the intonation in the second part depends on whether we are asking for information (rise) or simply asking for confirmation (fall ).
INTONATION OF REPORTING PHRASES IN REPORTED SPEECH
In Reported speech the Reporting phrases generally form the first (non-final) intonation-group of an utterance while the main remark (grammatically transformed Quoted speech) forms the following group. Like all non-final groups, Reporting phrases may take various nuclear tones: low rising, falling-rising, falling:
I 'want to ‚ask you | if you are 'ready.
They 'want to ˇknow | why he is 'here.
Mr. 'Brown' answered | that he 'didn't 'know that' man.
A Reporting phrase may not form an intonation-group and then the first word of it, important enough to take a full stress, becomes the head of the whole utterance, or otherwise it is pronounced as its prehead (unstressed or partially stressed):
I 'wonder if they 'know about our ar'rival.
He says he'.
What a /SHEI um/ (sorry, I have no shwa on my keyboard)
What a great /ai DI: a/
What /NAN sens/
How /a MEI zing/