Minimal Pair List Consonants /t/ versus /d/, 867 pairs

   Minimal pair: Consonants /t/ versus /d/, 867 pairs

The spelling of /t/ is usually <t> or <tt>, but we also often see <ght>, <th> in thyme , and several silent-letter combinations such as <bt> in debt and <pt> in receipt . The /d/ sound is usually <d> or <dd>. The homograph tear makes pairs with dare and dear , while the alternative pronunciations of ate make pairs with Ed and aid . I am not sure if the pair overwrought/overawed is completely minimal, since there is some difference in what happens to the /r/.

The contrast is between two plosives, one voiced and one voiceless, with the same place of articulation. It is a problem for many learners, notably German and Dutch speakers, especially when final in the syllable. Native speakers tend to signal whether the final sound is /t/ or /d/ by shortening or lengthening the preceding vowel. Speakers whose languages do not do this may have trouble hearing the consonant difference.

Pairs involving taboo words are peat/peed and shat/shad .

Interesting pairs include:

assent ascend
ballot ballad
blunter blunder
canted candid
château shadow
cute queued
incite inside
lucent loosened
maternity modernity
rabbit rabid
soutane Sudan
tauter daughter
tessellated desolated
wicket wicked

I am not sure of the status of the pairs burnt/burned , learnt/learned , spelt/spelled , etc,. since there is no change of meaning.

The mean density value is 3.6%. The list makes 510 semantic distinctions, a loading of 59%. This is slightly higher than expected with a long list, since many of the pairs contrast a past-tense inflection with a final /t/ sound and these cannot be further inflected.

abate obeyed
abet abed 
abort aboard 
alight allied
altar alder 
  altars alders 
ant and 
ante Andy 
ascent ascend  	 
  ascents ascends
assent ascend
  assented ascended 
  assenting ascending 
  ascents ascends
at ad 
at add
ate Ed 
ate aid
atom Adam 
attar adder 
aught awed
avert averred 
bait bayed
ballot ballad 
  ballots ballads
bandit banded 
bant banned 
bant band
  banting banding 
Bart bard
bat bad 
bate bayed
Batley badly
beat bead 
  beating beading 
  beats beads
beet bead
  beets beads
beetle beadle 
  beetles beadles 
begat begad 
belt belled 
bent bend 
Bert bird
bet bed 
  betted bedded 
  betting bedding 
  bets beds
bight bide   
  bights bides
bit bid 
  bits bids
bite bide
  biting biding 
  bites bides
  bitten bidden 
bitter bidder 
  bitters bidders 
bleat bleed
  bleating bleeding
  bleats bleeds
blent blend 
blunter blunder 
blurt blurred 
boat bode		   
  boats bodes
  boated boded
  boating boding
bolt bold 
boot booed 
bought bawd 
bought board
bought bored
bout bowed
brat brad 
  brats brads
bright bride 
brought broad 
Broughton broaden
bruit brewed 
  bruited brooded 
  bruiting brooding 
  bruits broods
brute brood
  brutes broods
built billed 
bullet bullied
burnt burned 
burton burden 
  burtons burdens 
but bud  
butt bud		  
  butts buds
  butted budded 
  butting budding 
cant canned 
canted candid 
canter candour 
cart card 
  carted carded 
  carts cards
  carting carding 
carter cadre 
  carters cadres 
cat cad 
  cats cads
cattish caddish 
catty caddie 
caught cawed 
caught cord
caught cored
cent send
  cents sends
centre sender
  centres senders
château shadow	
  châteaux shadows
chart Chard 
chat Chad 
chit chid 
chute shooed
cite side  
  cites sides
  cited sided
  citing siding
cite sighed
  clot clod 
clout cloud 
  clouted clouded 
  clouting clouding 
  clouts clouds
coat code
  coated coded
colt coaled 
complaint complained 
conceit concede 
  conceited conceded 
  conceits concedes
conjoint conjoined 
constraint constrained 
cont conned 
contemn condemn 
  contemned condemned 
  contemning condemning 
  contemns condemns 
content contend 
  contented contended 
  contenting contending 
  contents contends
coot cooed 
cot cod 
coulter colder 
court cawed
court cord
  courted corded 
  courting cording 
  courts cords
court cored  
covert covered 
cult culled 
curt curd 
cut cud 
cute queued
daunt dawned
debt dead 
descent descend 
  descents descends
dint dinned 
dissent descend
  dissented descended 
  dissenting descending 
  dissents descends
distraint distrained 
dolt doled 
doughty dowdy 
eaten Eden 
edit eddied 
eight aid 
errant errand 
extent extend 
eyelet eyelid 
  eyelets eyelids	
fate fade
  fates fades  
  fated faded
faint feigned 
fat fad 
  fats fads
fatty faddy 
  fattier faddier 
  fattiest faddiest 
feat feed
  feats feeds
feet feed
felt felled 
ferret ferried
fête fade
  fêted faded
  fêtes fades
  fêting fading
float flowed
font fond 
fort ford 
  forts fords
fought ford
fount found 
  founts founds
fraught fraud 
freight frayed 
fret Fred 
fright fried 
GATT gad
gent genned 
ghat gaud 
gilt gild 
  gilts gilds
gilt guild
  gilt guilds  
girt gird 
gloat glowed
goat goad 
got God 
grate grade 
  grated graded 
  grating grading 
  grates grades
great grade
greater grader
greet greed 
grit grid 
guilt gild
guilt guild
halt hauled
hart hard 
Hartley hardly
hat had 
haunt horned
heart hard
hearten harden 
  heartened hardened 
  heartening hardening 
  heartens hardens 
hearty hardy 
  heartier hardier 
  heartiest hardiest 
heat he'd 
heat heed
  heated heeded
  heating heeding
  heats heeds
height hide
  heights hides
height Hyde 
hit hid 
hoot who'd
hot hod 
hurt heard 
hurt herd
  hurting herding 
  hurts herds
hurtle hurdle 
  hurtled hurdled 
  hurtles hurdles 
  hurtling hurdling 
incite inside 
intent indent
  intents indents
intent intend
  intents intends
it id 
joint joined 
Kent kenned
kilt killed 
kit kid 
  kitted kidded 
  kitting kidding 
  kits kids
kitty kiddy 
  kitties kiddies 
knot nod
  knotted nodded
  knotting nodding
  knots nods
lat lad 
late lade 
latter ladder 
learnt learned 
legate legged
lent lend 
let lead 
  letting leading 
light lied 
lighten Leiden 
limpet limpid
litre leader 
  litres leaders 
lout loud 
lucent loosened 
malt mauled
mart marred 
mate made 	   
mate maid
  mates maids
maternity modernity
mat mad
matt mad
matter madder 
meant mend
meat mead 
met Med 
metal medal 
  metalled meddled 
  metals medals 
  metalling meddling
mettlesome meddlesome 
milt milled 
misspelt misspelled 
misspent misspend 
mitt mid 
mitten midden 
  mittens middens 
moat mode
  moats modes
moot mood 
mottle model 
  mottled modelled 
  mottles models 
  mottling modelling
moult mould 
  moulted moulded 
  moulting moulding 
  moults moulds
mount mound
  mounts mounds
mute mewed 
mutt mud 
naught gnawed 
net Ned 
newt nude
  newts nudes
not nod
note node 
  notes nodes
nought gnawed
oat ode
  oats odes
omit amid 
Otley oddly
otter odder    
ought awed
oversight overside 
overspent overspend 
overstate overstayed
overwrought overawed 
paint pained 
palette pallid
pant panned 
pat pad
  pats pads
  patted padded 
  patting padding 
pate paid 
patty paddy 
  patties paddies 
peat peed
pert purred
petal pedal 
  petaled pedalled 
  petals pedals 
Pete peed
pint pined 
plaint plained 
plait plaid 
  plaits plaids
plate played
pleat plead 
  pleated pleaded 
  pleating pleading 
  pleats pleads
plight plied 
plot plod 
  plotted plodded 
  plotting plodding 
  plots plods
plotter plodder 
  plotters plodders 
port pawed 
port poured
pot pod 
  potted podded 
  potting podding 
  pots pods
prate prayed 
punt punned 
pursuit pursued 
put pud 
quit quid 
  quits quids
rabbit rabid
raiment Raymond 
rant rand 
rate raid 
  rated raided 
  rating raiding 
  rates raids
rattle raddle
  rattled raddled 
rebuilt rebuild 
receipt recede 
  receipted receded 
  receipting receding 
  receipts recedes
relate relayed
rent rend 
  renting rending 
  rents rends
restraint restrained 
ret read 
retting Reading 
reverent Revd 
right ride
  rights rides
  righting riding 
rite ride
  rites rides
root rood 
  roots roods
root rude  
rot rod 
  rots rods
rote road 
rote rowed
rout rowed
saint seined
sat sad 
satyr sadder 
scant scanned 
scent send
  scenting sending
  scents sends
scut scud 
  scuts scuds
seat cede 
  seated ceded 
  seating ceding 
  seats cedes
seat seed
  seated seeded
  seating seeding
  seats seeds
sent send
set said 
shanty shandy 
  shanties shandies 
shat shad 
sheet she'd 
short shored 
shot shod 
shunt shunned 
shutter shudder 
  shuttered shuddered 
  shuttering shuddering 
  shutters shudders  
sight side
  sights sides
  sighted sided
  sighting siding
  sightings sidings 
sight sighed
site side
  sites sides  
site sighed  
skeet ski'd
skint skinned 
skit skid 
  skits skids
slate sleighed
sleight slide
slight slide
  slighting sliding 
  slights slides
slit slid 
smelt smelled 
snort snored 
sort sawed
sort soared 
sot sod   
  sots sods
soutane Sudan 
spate spade    
  spates spades
spelt spelled 
spent spend 
spilt spilled 
spirt spurred
spite spied 
spoilt spoiled 
squat squad 
  squats squads
start starred 
state staid 
stately staidly 
stet stead 
stilt stilled 
stoat stowed 
straight strayed
stunt stunned 
suite Swede 
  suites Swedes
summat summered
sunburnt sunburned 
Sutton sudden
sweet Swede
  sweeten Sweden 
  sweetish Swedish 
Swinton Swindon 
T D 
  T's D's 
tab dab 
  tabs dabs 
tail dale 
  tails dales 
tale dale
  tales dales
talking Dorking 
tally dally 
  tallied dallied 
  tallies dallies 
  tallying dallying 
tallish Dawlish 
tame dame
  tames dames 
tamp damp 
  tamped damped 
  tamping damping 
  tamps damps 
tamper damper 
  tampers dampers 
tan Dan 
tangle dangle 
  tangled dangled 
  tangles dangles 
  tangling dangling 
tank dank 
tanker danker 
tare dare 
  tares dares 
tarn darn 
  tarns darns 
tart dart
  tarted darted 
  tarting darting 
  tarts darts 
tart tarred 
taunt daunt
  taunted daunted 
  taunting daunting 
  taunts daunts 
tauter daughter 
tawse daws 	
tear dare
  tearing daring 
  tears dares
tear dear 
  tears dears 
teasel diesel 
  teasels diesels 
teat teed
tech deck
  techs decks 
Ted dead
tel dell 
  tels dells
tell dell
  tells dells 
telly Delhi 
ten den 
  tens dens 
Tenby Denbigh 
tennis Denis 
tense dense 
  tensely densely 
  tenseness denseness 
  tenser denser 
  tensest densest 
tensity density 
tent tend 
  tents tends
tessellated desolated 
Thai die
  Thais dies
Thai dye
  Thais dyes  
Thame dame
thought thawed 
threat thread 
  threats threads
thyme dime 
ticker dicker 
  tickers dickers 
tide died 
tide dyed
tie die
  ties dies 
  tied died
  tying dying 
tie dye
  ties dyes
  tied dyed
  tying dyeing 
tight tide 
  tights tides
tike dike 
  tikes dikes 
tilt tilde 	
time dime
  times dimes 
tin din 
  tinned dinned
  tinning dinning
  tins dins
time dine
  tined dined 
  tines dines 
tine dine
  tines dines
tingle dingle 
  tingles dingles 
tint tinned 
tint dint
  tints dints 
tip dip 
  tipped dipped 
  tipping dipping 
  tips dips 
tire dire 
  tires dyers 
titbit tidbit 
  titbits tidbits 
title tidal 
tizzy dizzy 
to do 
toast dosed 
toe do 
  toes does 
toe dough  
toes doze
toff doff 
  toffs doffs 
tog dog 
  togged dogged 
  togging dogging 
  togs dogs 
told doled
toll dole 
  tolling doling 
  tolls doles 
  tolled doled
tomb doom 
  tombs dooms 
tome dome 
  tomes domes 
ton done
ton dun
  tons duns
too do
tope dope 
  toped doped 
  topes dopes 
  toping doping 
topi dopey 	
tor daw
  tors daws
tor door 
  tors doors
torn dawn 
Tory dory
  Tories dories
toss doss
  tossed dossed 
  tossing dossing 
  tosses dosses
tot dot 
  totting dotting 
  tots dots 
  totted dotted 
tote dote  
  totes dotes 
  toted doted
  toting doting
tote toad 
  totes toads
toted toadied 
touch Dutch 
touches duchies 
touchy duchy 
tougher duffer 
tour dour 
tout doubt 
  touted doubted 
  touting doubting 
  touts doubts 
towel dowel 
  towels dowels 
tower dower 
  towered dowered 
  towering dowering 
  towers dowers 
town down 
  towns downs 
townee downy 
tows does
tows doze
train drain 
  trained drained 
  training draining 
  trains drains 
traipse drapes 
trait trade 
  traits trades
traitor trader 
  traitors traders 
tram drachm 
  trams drachms 
tram dram 
  trams drams 
trawl drawl 
  trawled drawled 
  trawling drawling 
  trawls drawls 
tray dray 
  trays drays 
tread dread 
  treading dreading 
  treads dreads
treat treed
trench drench 
  trenched drenched 
  trenches drenches 
  trenching drenching 
tress dress 
  tresses dresses 
trier drier 
  triers driers 
trill drill 
  trilled drilled 
  trilling drilling 
  trills drills 
trip drip 
  tripped dripped 
  tripping dripping 
  trips drips 
trite tried 
troll droll 
troop droop 
  trooped drooped 
  trooping drooping 
  troops droops 
trot trod 
trout drought 
trove drove 
  troves droves 
trudge drudge 
  trudged drudged 
  trudges drudges 
  trudging drudging 
true drew 
trunk drunk 
  trunks drunks 
try dry 
  tried dried 
  trying drying 
  tries dries 
tub dub 
  tubs dubs 
tuck duck 
  tucked ducked 
  tucking ducking 
  tucks ducks 
tug Doug 
tug dug
  tugs dugs 
tummy dummy 
  tummies dummies 
tun done
tun dun
  tuns duns
tune dune 
  tunes dunes 
turban Durban 
Turk dirk
  Turks dirks
tusk dusk 
tweet tweed 
two do
  twos do's 
Tyne dine
unbent unbend 
underspent underspend 
unheated unheeded
unhurt unheard 
unlearnt unlearned 
unspoilt unspoiled 
utter udder 
  utters udders 
vent vend 
  vented vended 
  venting vending 
  vents vends
wait wade 
  waited waded 
  waiting wading 
  waits wades
waiter wader 
  waiters waders 
want wand 	 
  wants wands
wart ward 
  warts wards
water warder 
  waters warders 
watt wad 
  watts wads
wattle waddle 
  wattles waddles 
weight wade
  weighted waded
  weighting wading
  weights wades
welt weld 
  welts welds
welter welder 
  welters welders 
went wend 
wert whirred
wert word
wet wed 
  wetted wedded 
  wetting wedding 
  wettings weddings 
  wets weds
what wad
wheat we'd 
wheat weed
white wide
  whiter wider
  whitest widest
  whites wides
whiten widen
  whitened widened
  whitening widening
  whitens widens
wicket wicked 
Wight wide
wilt willed 
writ rid 
write ride
  writes rides
  writing riding
  writings ridings 
  written ridden 
writer rider 
  writers riders 
Writtle riddle
wrote road
wrote rode
wrought roared