Minimal Pair List Consonants /d/ versus /r/, 501 pairs
The /d/ sound is spelled with <d>, <dd> or <de>, and the /r/ sound is <r>, <wr>, <rr> or <rh>. Notice how the homograph row pairs with doe and dhow .
There can be no contrasts in syllable-final position. Otherwise the contrast is between a voiced stop and a voiced continuant which has several allophones, fairly close together in the mouth. It may be a problem for learners when the sounds are contrasted medially in which case the /r/ usually has the flap allophone, but in other environments there are fewer problems.
The length of the list is partly accounted for by the number of words made by combining the de- and re- prefixes with the same root which in turn leads to a lowish semantic loading since many of these sets are nouns and verbs with the same inflections.
Interesting pairs include:
The mean density value is 2.5%. The list makes 244 semantic distinctions, a loading of 49%.
added arid bedded buried boarder borer boarders borers boarding boring border borer borders borers bodice Boris caddy carry caddies carries cording coring D re dabble rabble dabbles rabbles dace race daft raft dafter rafter daisies raises dale rail dales rails dally rally dallied rallied dallies rallies dallying rallying dam ram dammed rammed damming ramming dams rams damn ram damned rammed damning ramming damns rams damp ramp damped ramped damping ramping damps ramps Dan ran dandy randy Dane rain Danes rains Dane reign Danes reigns Dane rein Danes reins danger ranger dangers rangers dangle wrangle dangled wrangled dangles wrangles dangling wrangling dank rank danker rancour dapper wrapper dare rare daring raring dash rash dashes rashes date rate dated rated dates rates dating rating datable ratable Dave rave daw raw daw roar daws roars day ray days rays days raise days raze daze raise dazed raised dazing raising daze raze dazed razed dazing razing dazzle razzle dazzles razzles dead read dead red deaden redden deadened reddened deadening reddening deadens reddens deaf ref deal real deal reel dealing reeling deals reels dear rear dears rears dearly really debt ret decant recant decanted recanted decanting recanting decants recants deceit receipt deceits receipts deceive receive deceived rec deceives receives deceiving receiving deceiver receiver deceivers receivers decent recent decently recently deception reception deceptions receptions deceptive receptive deceptively receptively deck wreck decked wrecked decking wrecking decks wrecks decks rex decker wrecker deckers wreckers declaim reclaim declaimed reclaimed declaiming reclaiming declaims reclaims declamation reclamation decline recline declined reclined declines reclines declining reclining deduce reduce deduced reduced deduces reduces deducing reducing deduction reduction deductions reductions deed read deeds reads deed reed deeds reeds deems Rheims defamation reformation defection refection defections refections defer refer deferred referred deferring referring defers refers deferential referential define refine defined refined defines refines defining refining deflect reflect deflected reflected deflecting reflecting deflects reflects deflection reflection deflections reflections deforest reforest deforested reforested deforesting reforesting deforests reforests deform reform deformed reformed deforming reforming deforms reforms deft reft degenerate regenerate degenerated regenerated degenerates regenerates degenerating regenerating degeneration regeneration deign rain deigned rained deigning raining deigns rains deign rein deigns reins deign reign deigned reigned deigning reigning deigns reigns deject reject dejected rejected dejecting rejecting dejects rejects dejection rejection delay relay delayed relayed delaying relaying delays relays delegate relegate delegated relegated delegates relegates delegating relegating delegation relegation demand remand demanded remanded demanding remanding demands remands demesne remain demesnes remains demilitarize remilitarize demilitarized remilitarized demilitarizes remilitarizes demilitarizing remilitarizing demonstrate remonstrate demonstrated remonstrated demonstrates remonstrates demonstrating remonstrating den Rennes den wren dens wrens denounce renounce denounced renounced denounces renounces denouncing renouncing dent rent dented rented denting renting dents rents dental rental denude renewed denunciation renunciation dep rep deplete replete depletion repletion deport report deported reported deporting reporting deports reports depose repose deposed reposed deposes reposes deposing reposing depository repository depositories repositories depress repress depressed repressed depresses represses depressing repressing depression repression depressions repressions depressive repressive deputation reputation deputations reputations depute repute deputed reputed deputes reputes deputing reputing Des res deserve reserve deserved reserved deserves reserves deserving reserving deservedly reservedly design resign designed resigned designing resigning designs resigns designation resignation designations resignations desist resist desisted resisted desisting resisting desists resists desperation respiration despondent respondent destitution restitution detail retail detailed retailed detailing retailing details retails detain retain detained retained detaining retaining detains retains detention retention detract retract detracted retracted detracting retracting detracts retracts detraction retraction detractions retractions devilling revelling devise revise devised revised devising revising devises revises devitalization revitalization Devizes revises devolve revolve devolved revolved devolves revolves devolving revolving dhow row dhows rows dhows rouse Di rye Di wry dice rice Dick Rick Dicky Ricky diddle riddle diddled riddled diddles riddles diddling riddling die rye die wry died ride died Ryde dies rise diet riot dieted rioted dieting rioting diets riots diffract refract diffracted refracted diffracting refracting diffracts refracts diffraction refraction diffractions refractions diffuse refuse diffused refused diffuses refuses diffusing refusing dig rig digging rigging digs rigs digger rigger diggers riggers dike Reich dikes Reichs dill Rhyl dime rhyme dimes rhymes dim rim dimmed rimmed dimming rimming dims rims dine Rhine dined rind dire wrier disc risk discs risks dissolve resolve dissolved resolved dissolves resolves dissolving resolving distrain restrain distrained restrained distraining restraining distrains restrains distraint restraint distraints restraints dive rive dived rived dives rives diving riving division revision divisions revisions divisor reviser divisors revisers do roe do rwo do roo do rue doe roe does roes doe row does rows dobbin robin dobbins robins dock rock docked rocked docking rocking docks rocks docker rocker dockers rockers docket rocket docketed rocketed docketing rocketing dockets rockets dodger Roger dole rôle doles rôles dole roll doled rolled doling rolling doles rolls dome roam domed roamed domes roams dome Rome Don Ron Donald Ronald done run doom rheum doom room doomed roomed dooming rooming dooms rooms door raw door roar doors roars dope rope doped roped dopes ropes doping roping dopey ropey dosed roast dot rot dots rots dotted rotted dotting rotting dote rote dote wrote Douai roué double rubble doubt rout doubted routed doubting routing doubts routs Doug rug Dover rover dowdy rowdy dowdier rowdier dowdiest rowdiest dowdily rowdily dowdiness rowdiness dowel rowel dowels rowels downed round dowse rouse dowsing rousing dowsed roused dowses rouses doze rose dozes roses DPhil refill dub rub dubbed rubbed dubbing rubbing dubs rubs duck ruck ducked rucked ducking rucking ducks rucks duff rough duffel ruffle duffer rougher dug rug dugs rugs dumb rum dumber rummer dumbest rummest dummy rummy dump rump dumps rumps dumpling rumpling dun run dunning running duns runs dusk rusk dust rust dusted rusted dusting rusting dusts rusts dusty rusty dustier rustier dustiest rustiest faddier farrier flooded flurried gaudy gory gaudier gorier gaudiest goriest heading herring headings herrings laddie Larry Maddy marry misdeed misread misdeeds misreads Modena marina orderly orally order aura orders auras overdone overrun padded parried paddy parry paddies parries pedalling perilling scudded scurried sedated serrated Sunday sunray tardy tarry Teddy Terry undefined unrefined undeserved unreserved undissolved unresolved warding warring weirdie weary weirdies wearies wording whirring