Minimal Pair List Consonants /d/ versus /r/, 501 pairs

   Minimal pair: Consonants /d/ versus /r/, 501 pairs

The /d/ sound is spelled with <d>, <dd> or <de>, and the /r/ sound is <r>, <wr>, <rr> or <rh>. Notice how the homograph row pairs with doe and dhow .

There can be no contrasts in syllable-final position. Otherwise the contrast is between a voiced stop and a voiced continuant which has several allophones, fairly close together in the mouth. It may be a problem for learners when the sounds are contrasted medially in which case the /r/ usually has the flap allophone, but in other environments there are fewer problems.

The length of the list is partly accounted for by the number of words made by combining the de- and re- prefixes with the same root which in turn leads to a lowish semantic loading since many of these sets are nouns and verbs with the same inflections.

Interesting pairs include:

bedded buried
dandy randy
dearly really
faddier farrier
orderly orally
weirdie weary

The mean density value is 2.5%. The list makes 244 semantic distinctions, a loading of 49%.

added arid
bedded buried
boarder borer
  boarders borers
boarding boring
border borer
  borders borers
bodice Boris 
caddy carry 
  caddies carries
cording coring
D re
dabble rabble
  dabbles rabbles
dace race
daft raft
dafter rafter
daisies raises
dale rail
  dales rails
dally rally
  dallied rallied
  dallies rallies
  dallying rallying
dam ram
  dammed rammed
  damming ramming
  dams rams
damn ram
  damned rammed
  damning ramming
  damns rams
damp ramp
  damped ramped
  damping ramping
  damps ramps
Dan ran
dandy randy
Dane rain
  Danes rains
Dane reign
  Danes reigns
Dane rein
  Danes reins
danger ranger
  dangers rangers
dangle wrangle
  dangled wrangled
  dangles wrangles
  dangling wrangling
dank rank
danker rancour
dapper wrapper
dare rare
daring raring
dash rash
  dashes rashes
date rate
  dated rated
  dates rates
  dating rating
datable ratable
Dave rave
daw raw
daw roar
  daws roars
day ray
  days rays
days raise		 
days raze
daze raise
  dazed raised
  dazing raising
daze raze
  dazed razed
  dazing razing
dazzle razzle
  dazzles razzles
dead read	   
dead red
deaden redden
  deadened reddened
  deadening reddening
  deadens reddens
deaf ref
deal real
deal reel
  dealing reeling
  deals reels
dear rear
  dears rears
dearly really
debt ret
decant recant
  decanted recanted
  decanting recanting
  decants recants
deceit receipt
  deceits receipts
deceive receive
  deceived rec
  deceives receives
  deceiving receiving
deceiver receiver
  deceivers receivers
decent recent
  decently recently
deception reception
  deceptions receptions
deceptive receptive
  deceptively receptively
deck wreck
  decked wrecked
  decking wrecking
  decks wrecks
decks rex
decker wrecker
  deckers wreckers
declaim reclaim
  declaimed reclaimed
  declaiming reclaiming
  declaims reclaims
declamation reclamation
decline recline
  declined reclined
  declines reclines
  declining reclining
deduce reduce
  deduced reduced
  deduces reduces
  deducing reducing
deduction reduction
  deductions reductions
deed read
  deeds reads
deed reed
  deeds reeds  
deems Rheims 
defamation reformation
defection refection
  defections refections
defer refer
  deferred referred
  deferring referring
  defers refers
deferential referential
define refine
  defined refined
  defines refines
  defining refining
deflect reflect
  deflected reflected
  deflecting reflecting
  deflects reflects
deflection reflection
  deflections reflections
deforest reforest
  deforested reforested
  deforesting reforesting
  deforests reforests
deform reform
  deformed reformed
  deforming reforming
  deforms reforms
deft reft
degenerate regenerate
  degenerated regenerated
  degenerates regenerates
  degenerating regenerating
degeneration regeneration
deign rain
  deigned rained
  deigning raining
  deigns rains
deign rein
  deigns reins
deign reign
  deigned reigned
  deigning reigning
  deigns reigns
deject reject
  dejected rejected
  dejecting rejecting
  dejects rejects
dejection rejection
delay relay
  delayed relayed
  delaying relaying
  delays relays
delegate relegate
  delegated relegated
  delegates relegates
  delegating relegating
delegation relegation
demand remand
  demanded remanded
  demanding remanding
  demands remands
demesne remain
  demesnes remains
demilitarize remilitarize
  demilitarized remilitarized
  demilitarizes remilitarizes
  demilitarizing remilitarizing
demonstrate remonstrate
  demonstrated remonstrated
  demonstrates remonstrates
  demonstrating remonstrating
den Rennes
den wren
  dens wrens
denounce renounce
  denounced renounced
  denounces renounces
  denouncing renouncing
dent rent
  dented rented
  denting renting
  dents rents
dental rental
denude renewed
denunciation renunciation
dep rep
deplete replete
depletion repletion
deport report
  deported reported
  deporting reporting
  deports reports
depose repose
  deposed reposed
  deposes reposes
  deposing reposing
depository repository
  depositories repositories
depress repress
  depressed repressed
  depresses represses
  depressing repressing
depression repression
  depressions repressions
depressive repressive
deputation reputation
  deputations reputations
depute repute
  deputed reputed
  deputes reputes
  deputing reputing
Des res
deserve reserve
  deserved reserved
  deserves reserves
  deserving reserving
deservedly reservedly
design resign
  designed resigned
  designing resigning
  designs resigns
designation resignation
  designations resignations
desist resist
  desisted resisted
  desisting resisting
  desists resists
desperation respiration
despondent respondent
destitution restitution
detail retail
  detailed retailed
  detailing retailing
  details retails
detain retain
  detained retained
  detaining retaining
  detains retains
detention retention
detract retract
  detracted retracted
  detracting retracting
  detracts retracts
detraction retraction
  detractions retractions
devilling revelling
devise revise
  devised revised
  devising revising
  devises revises
devitalization revitalization
Devizes revises
devolve revolve
  devolved revolved
  devolves revolves
  devolving revolving
dhow row
  dhows rows
dhows rouse
Di rye
Di wry
dice rice
Dick Rick
Dicky Ricky
diddle riddle
  diddled riddled
  diddles riddles
  diddling riddling
die rye
die wry
died ride
died Ryde
dies rise
diet riot
  dieted rioted
  dieting rioting
  diets riots
diffract refract
  diffracted refracted
  diffracting refracting
  diffracts refracts
diffraction refraction
  diffractions refractions
diffuse refuse
  diffused refused
  diffuses refuses
  diffusing refusing
dig rig
  digging rigging
  digs rigs
digger rigger
  diggers riggers
dike Reich 
  dikes Reichs 	
dill Rhyl  
dime rhyme
  dimes rhymes
dim rim
  dimmed rimmed
  dimming rimming
  dims rims
dine Rhine
dined rind
dire wrier
disc risk
  discs risks
dissolve resolve
  dissolved resolved
  dissolves resolves
  dissolving resolving
distrain restrain
  distrained restrained
  distraining restraining
  distrains restrains
distraint restraint
  distraints restraints
dive rive
  dived rived
  dives rives
  diving riving
division revision
  divisions revisions
divisor reviser
  divisors revisers
do roe
do rwo
do roo
do rue
doe roe
  does roes
doe row	   
  does rows
dobbin robin
  dobbins robins
dock rock
  docked rocked
  docking rocking
  docks rocks
docker rocker
  dockers rockers
docket rocket
  docketed rocketed
  docketing rocketing
  dockets rockets
dodger Roger 
dole rôle
  doles rôles
dole roll
  doled rolled
  doling rolling
  doles rolls
dome roam
  domed roamed
  domes roams
dome Rome  
Don Ron
Donald Ronald
done run
doom rheum
doom room
  doomed roomed
  dooming rooming
  dooms rooms
door raw
door roar
  doors roars
dope rope
  doped roped
  dopes ropes
  doping roping
dopey ropey
dosed roast
dot rot
  dots rots
  dotted rotted
  dotting rotting
dote rote
dote wrote
Douai roué
double rubble
doubt rout
  doubted routed
  doubting routing
  doubts routs
Doug rug
Dover rover
dowdy rowdy
  dowdier rowdier
  dowdiest rowdiest
dowdily rowdily
dowdiness rowdiness
dowel rowel
  dowels rowels
downed round
dowse rouse
  dowsing rousing
  dowsed roused
  dowses rouses
doze rose
  dozes roses
DPhil refill
dub rub
  dubbed rubbed
  dubbing rubbing
  dubs rubs
duck ruck
  ducked rucked
  ducking rucking
  ducks rucks
duff rough
duffel ruffle
duffer rougher
dug rug
  dugs rugs
dumb rum
  dumber rummer
  dumbest rummest
dummy rummy
dump rump
  dumps rumps
dumpling rumpling
dun run
  dunning running
  duns runs
dusk rusk
dust rust
  dusted rusted
  dusting rusting
  dusts rusts
dusty rusty
  dustier rustier
  dustiest rustiest
faddier farrier
flooded flurried
gaudy gory
  gaudier gorier
  gaudiest goriest
heading herring
  headings herrings
laddie Larry 
Maddy marry
misdeed misread
  misdeeds misreads
Modena marina
orderly orally 
order aura
  orders auras 
overdone overrun
padded parried
paddy parry
  paddies parries
pedalling perilling
scudded scurried
sedated serrated
Sunday sunray
tardy tarry
Teddy Terry
undefined unrefined
undeserved unreserved
undissolved unresolved
warding warring
weirdie weary 
  weirdies wearies 
wording whirring