Minimal Pair List Consonants /d/ versus /l/, 585 pairs
The /d/ sound is spelled with <d>, <dd> or <de>, and the /l/ sound is <l> or <ll>. Notice how the homograph do makes pairs with with low and loo .
The contrast is between a voiced stop and a voiced lateral continuant, fairly close together in the mouth. It may be a problem for learners when the sounds are contrasted medially, but not generally in other environments.
The /l/ sound in RP is usually a clear /l/ initially or medially and a dark /l/ when final in the syllable. It may also be syllabic, occurring after another consonant without an intervening vowel. The computer identified many pairs contrasting /d/ with syllabic /l/, as in arrived/arrival . I have removed all of these, since they would not be perceived as minimal, nor would they be a problem for any learners.
The only mildly taboo word pair is peed/peal .
Interesting pairs include:
The mean density value is 2.6%. The list makes 335 semantic distinctions, a loading of 57%.
ad Al add Al Adam alum aid ail aiding ailing aids ails assayed assail awed all awed awl baseboard baseball baseboards baseballs bawd ball bawds balls bayed bail bed bell bed bells bed belle beds belles bedded bellied bedding belling bid bill bids bills bidding billing bide bile blackboard blackball blackboards blackballs board bawl boards bawls boarding balling boardroom ballroom boardrooms ballrooms bode bole bodes boles bode bowl bodes bowls booed buhl braid braille broad brawl broads brawls broader brawler buoyed boil card Carl cawed call cedar sealer cedars sealers cede seal cedes seals ceding sealing ceding ceiling chards Charles chid chill chord call chords calls cicada cicala cicadas cicalas cod col cods cols coda cola codas colas code coal codes coals comedian chameleon comedians chameleons concede conceal concedes conceals conceding concealing cooed cool cord call cords calls cording calling cowed cowl creed creel creeds creels cud cull curd curl curds curls D lea D's leas D lee dab lab dabs labs dace lace dad lad dads lads daddy dally daddies dallies daddy laddy daddies laddies daft laughed dafter laughter daisy lazy daisies lazes Dakar lacquer dam lam dams lams dammed lammed damming lamming dam lamb dams lambs dammed lambed damming lambing dame lame dames lames damn lam damns lams damned lammed damning lamming damn lamb dammed lambed damming lambing damns lambs damp lamp damps lamps dance lance danced lanced dances lances dancing Lancing dancer lancer dancers lancers Dane lain Dane lane Danes lanes dank lank dare lair dares lairs dare layer dares layers dared layered dared laird dark lakh darn Larne darn larn darned larned darning larning darns larns dash lash dashed lashed dashes lashes dashing lashing date late Dave lave daw law daws laws dawn lawn dawns lawns day lay days lays days laze daze lays daze laze dazed lazed dazing lazing dead dell deaden leaden Deal Lille dear leer dears leers debt let debts lets debtor letter debtors letters deed deal deeds deals defied defile deft left deign lain deign lane deigns lanes deigned laned deigning laning den Len Denny Lenny dens lens dent Lent dents Lents dental lentil Des Les devil level devilled levelled devilling levelling devils levels Devon leaven Di lie dice lice dicker liquor dickers liquors did dill die lie died lied dies lies dying lying dike like diked liked dikes likes diking liking dime lime dimes limes dim limb dimmed limbed dimming limning dims limbs din Lynn dine line dined lined dines lines dining lining diner liner diners liners dint lint dints Linz dipstick lipstick dipsticks lipsticks dire liar dirk lurk dirks lurks dive live dives lives dizzy Lizzy do loo do's loos do lo do low dock lock docked locked docking locking docks locks docker locker dockers lockers docket locket dockets lockets dodder dollar dodders dollars dodge lodge dodged lodged dodges lodges dodging lodging dodger lodger dodgers lodgers doe lo doe low does lows doffed loft dog log dogged logged dogging logging dogs logs doll loll dolled lolled dolling lolling dolls lolls dolly lolly dollies lollies dome loam doom loom doomed loomed dooming looming dooms looms door law doors laws door lor dope lope doped loped dopes lopes doping loping Dora Laura doss loss dosses losses dossed lost dost lust dot lot dots lots doubt lout doubts louts Doug lug dour lure douse louse dove love doves loves dowel dowered dower lour dowered loured dowering louring dowers lours duck luck ducks luxe ducky lucky dud dull duds dulls dude lewd dug lug dugs lugs dull lull dulled lulled dulling lulling dulls lulls dummy lumme dump lump dumped lumped dumping lumping dumps lumps dumpy lumpy dumpier lumpier dumpiest lumpiest dung lung dust lust dusts lusts dusted lusted dusting lusting duster lustre dusty lusty dustier lustier dustiest lustiest dye lie dyes lies dyeing lying dyer liar dyers liars Ed L Eddie Ellie erred earl fade fail fades fails fading failing fed fell feed feel feeding feeling feeds feels feeder feeler feeders feelers fired phial fired file flayed flail food fool foods fools footboard football footboards footballs ford fall fording falling fords falls frayed frail gad gal gads gals gaud Gaul gauds Gauls giddy gillie gird girl girds girls goad goal goads goals grade grail grades grails grid grill grids grills guide guile had Hal hawed hall hawed haul head hell heard hurl he'd he'll heed heal heeding healing heeds heals heed heel heeds heels herd hurl herding hurling herds hurls hid hill hoard hall hoards halls hoard haul hoarding hauling hoards hauls hoed hole hoed whole horde hall hordes halls horde haul hordes hauls howdah howler howdahs howlers humidity humility I'd I'll id ill ides aisles jade gaol jades gaols Judy Julie keyed keel kid kill kidding killing kids kills knead Neil knead kneel kneading kneeling kneads kneels lied lisle made mail made male maid mail maids mails maid male maids males Mandy manly marred marl Maud maul Maudie Morley mead meal meads meals meadow mellow meadows mellows mewed mule mid mill misdeed misdeal misdeeds misdeals misdeed mislead misdeeds misleads Mod moll Mods molls mode mole modes moles modify mollify modifying mollifying modification mollification modified mollified modifies mollifies mud mull muds mulls Ned Nell Neddy Nelly need Neil need kneel needing kneeling needs kneels neighed nail node knoll nodes knolls overawed overall pad pal pads pals padding palling padded pallid Paddy pally paid pail paid pale pall pawed pall poured Paul pawed Paul poured peed peal peed peel pod poll pods polls proud prowl prouder prowler pud pull puds pulls pudding pulling purred pearl quid quill quids quills raid rail raiding railing raids rails read reel reading reeling reads reels reared real record recall recording recalling records recalls reddish relish rid rill rids rills ride rile rides riles riding riling road rôle roads rôles rood rule roods rules rude rule ruder ruler Ryde rile said cell said sell scud scull scudding sculling scuds sculls seed seal seeds seals seeding sealing seeding ceiling sewed Seoul sewed sole sewed soul shad shall shade shale shadow shallow shadowed shallowed shadowing shallowing shadows shallows she'd she'll shed shell shedding shelling sheds shells shored shawl showed shoal skid skill skids skills sodded solid sowed Seoul sowed sole sowed soul Spaniard spaniel Spaniards spaniels sped spell staid stale staidness staleness steed steal steeds steals stored stall stowed stole strode stroll Ted tel Ted tell Teds tells Teddy telly teddies tellies teed teal they'd they'll tide tile tides tiles tiding tiling toad toll toads tolls towered towel toyed toil trade trail trades trails trading trailing trader trailer traders trailers undock unlock undocked unlocked undocking unlocking undocks unlocks unwed unwell vied vile void voile wade wail wading wailing wades wails wader whaler waders whalers wades Wales wadi Wally ward wall warding walling wards walls we'd we'll wed well wedding welling weds wells weed weal weed wheel weeds wheels weeding wheeling whirred whirl who'd who'll wide while widow willow widows willows wood wool woods wools woody woolly woodier woolier woodiest wooliest word whirl wording whirling words whirls would wool yawed yawl you'd you'll