Minimal Pair List Vowels 3 and 12, /e/ versus /ə/ 36 pairs
Almost all of these contrasts occur in unstressed syllables, so they are often confused even by native speakers. This applies particularly to the 11 compounds of -men v. -man words where the contrast is no more than optional. The list includes six pairs which are -ment homographs (verb v. noun).
The mean density is 0.2%. The pairs make 22 semantic contrasts, giving a loading of 61%.
bowmen bowman cattlemen cattleman cavalrymen cavalryman churchmen churchman coachmen coachman coalmen coalman compliment complement complimented complemented complimenting complementing compliments complements document document documents documents essay assay essayed assayed essaying assaying essays assays hem h'm hemmed h'mmed hemming h'mming hems h'ms implement implement implements implements M 'em N 'un ornament ornament ornaments ornaments pelisse police pelisses polices railwaymen railwayman servicemen serviceman supplement supplement supplements supplements villainess villainous woodmen woodman woodsmen woodsman workmen workman