What Are Suprasegmentals in Speech?


Supra-segmental elements are prosodic elements, that is, phonic facts that are not subject to the double articulation of languages and appear superimposed on the phoneme.

These are elements that do not enter into the monematic and phonetic segmentation. Intonation, duration, accents, and tones are supra-segmental elements. Also called nonseptal, the term supraseptal, coined by American structuralists in the 1940s, refers to vowel and consonant functions.

Suprasegmental information applies to many different linguistic phenomena (including pitch, duration, and loudness). Suprasegmentals are often thought of as the "musical" aspects of speech.

How We Use Suprasegmental

"The effect of super specialties is easy to explain. You may adopt a particular set of super specialties in talking to a cat, dog, or child. When doing so, people often assume a different voice quality, with a higher pitch register and. Spread your lips and adopt the tongue posture where the body of the tongue is high, and the mouth is in front, making the sound louder.

Suprasegmentals are a proxy to the establishment of meaning, especially the attitudes of speakers or attitudes towards what they are saying (or the person to whom they are saying it), and in marking that a how pronunciation relates to another.

However, super specialties' forms and functions are less tangible than those of consonants and vowels, and they often do not form discrete categories.

Common Superspecial Features

Vowels and consonants are treated as short segments of speech, which form a syllable and form pronunciation. Distinctive features that are superimposed on the utterance of speech are known as supra-segmental features. Standard supra-segmental features are stress: syllables, vowels, and durations in a syllable or syllable for a continuous speech sequence.

Sometimes coherence and resonance are also included under this category. Often supra to make it more dominant and compelling. Segmental or accusative features are used in the context of speech. Without segmental features superimposed super-segmental features, a continuous speech can also convey meaning but often brings the effectiveness of the message."

(Manisha Kulshrestha in Alisha, "Speaker Profiling." Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism, eds. by Amy Nestein and Hemant A. Patil. Springer, 2012)

Different types of tricks

A very pronounced superposition is an intonation because, by definition, a counterpositional pattern extends over the entire utterance or a large piece of a syllable is less pronounced stress.

But not only is the stress property of an entire syllable, but there is also the stress level. A syllable can be determined simply by comparing it with neighboring syllables with greater or lesser degrees of stress.

"American structuralists also treated the turning phenomenon as suprasegmental. The timing differences are why the night rate doesn't sound like nitrate, why choose white shoes, and why consonants between pen-knife and lamp are posted the way they are.

Since these items contain essentially the same sequence of segments, the differences injunctions must be described in terms of different junction placements within the series of segments."

Usually, the phonetic realization of the supraspecial is spread over more than one clause, but, in all of them, the description of the supraspecial must include a reference to more than one clause.

(R.L. Tusk, Language and Linguistics: Key Concepts, 2nd ed., edited by Peter Stockwell. Routledge, 2007)

Superspecial information

"Suprasegmental information is indicated in speech with variations in duration, pitch, and amplitude (loudness). Such information helps the listener to signal in words and even influence lexical searches. can do."

"In English, literally stress serves to distinguish words from each other ... For example, dependability and trustee compare. There are surprisingly attentive to the stress patterns in the English-speaking lexical access. "

Suprasegmental information can also be used to identify the location of word boundaries. In languages ​​such as English or Dutch, monosyllabic words are much different from syllable polysyllabic words. For example, in ham, the key of [hæm] is longer than that of the hamster.

Suprasegmental and Prosodic

Although the terms 'dissociation' and 'prosecution' largely coincide in their scope and context, it is valuable and desirable to differentiate them. The section above does not do justice to the richness of 'sound structure.' The structure is complex, involving various dimensions, and prosecutive features cannot be seen as the only superimposed features on the segments.

And can be constructed as 'prosodic as a mode of description and as a kind of characteristic on the other. In other words, we can use the word. To refer to a particular formalism in which In this way a phonological characteristic can be analyzed, whether accusative or not."

On the other hand, the term 'prosodic can be applied to specific characteristics of utterances, regardless of what they are formal; Prosocial features can be analyzed theoretically as well as superstructively.

Some doctrinal frameworks, such as extending racially or voice beyond the limits of a segment, may be treated differently. However, in the usage adopted herein, such features are not plaintiffs, even if they ascribe to superspecial analysis.