Learn English: Phonetics, Vocabulary and Grammar


Your speech should be correct in sound, structure, and content. We invite you to find out what language segments are, the features of their study, and how they will help in actual communication.

Pronunciation and phonetics

The smallest unit of speech is sound. It is from sounds that combinations are formed, which we recognize as words and utterances. If you pronounce each sound correctly, they will generally give a clear, competent speech and ensure successful communication for you.

For example, many new learners pronounce the words [wↄ:k] to go and [wᴈ:k] to work alike. Of course, in most cases, the context will help the speaker understand what you mean. However, if your interlocutor has recently started learning English, the wrong pronunciation can lead to misunderstanding and embarrassment.

Usually, the study of phonetics begins with the alphabet. First, students learn how to pronounce certain sounds themselves, then how they interact with other sounds. So, a [ei] can be pronounced in speech as [ei], [ᴂ], [ᴧ], [a:], etc.

As a rule, students are explained what phonetic signs (transcriptions) are used to denote sounds, how articulatory instruments are used, and what air currents are used to produce them. It should be made.

Vocabulary or terminology

Another indicator that you have learned English is your vocabulary.

Researchers call the number 8000 - this is the number of words, which will be enough to communicate with an average European on almost any topic, including a native English speaker, and read any literature.

This is a very decent figure, which is quite challenging to achieve. The main criterion is adequate to use terminology. It is better to know fewer words but be able to use them in speech.

As for vocabulary and common words, an important indicator of the level of knowledge is fixed expressions, slang, and phraseology. Native speakers easily recognize words' direct and figurative meanings, regular or occasional (attribute only to a particular situation), word use, language games, etc.

In addition, they can describe several specific conditions or feelings in short but concise still expressions. All these skills are beyond the control of a beginner when it comes to language learning.

To enrich your vocabulary at the expense of such units, you need to immerse yourself in the language environment, with regular communication with foreigners, listening to foreign radio stations, reading literature, news, blogs, and forums, watching movies, etc.

Grammar and syntax

Knowledge of grammatical structures and rules makes it possible to form a transparent road map of spoken English. It is not enough to learn words and remember how to pronounce them. It is important to understand how they can change and also to be able to combine them into a meaningful and understandable statement in English.

In this linguistics, the forms of verbs, the order of words in sentences, and regular syntax, for example, a complex subject, are studied. The ideal situation is when you bring the use of these rules and patterns to automaticity. That is, you do not think about the structure of speech but only observe its semantic content.

Modern teaching methods, especially the most popular communication techniques, offer to study grammar about speech needs. However, unlike the methods used just a decade ago, it does not involve a two-month study of time arrangements, etc. Instead, the instructor will explain the specific temporal form if necessary to apply it to the lesson's topic.

More advanced mastery of each of the listed aspects brings you closer to learning English at a higher level. However, remember, the most important indicator of your knowledge is how freely you can use it to solve practical problems, i.e., oral and written communication, reading, understanding and voice speech, etc.

Learning English Sounds - Pronunciation Chart

Phonetics is the section that studies sounds. Its main goal is to teach you to pronounce English sounds and words correctly and develop your ability to understand the speech of native speakers. Therefore, to learn to speak and read English correctly, you need to know the English alphabet and learn the pronunciation of the different vowels and words in which they are used.

English phonetics

The English language is built on the Latin alphabet, has only 26 letters but has almost twice the number of sounds on these familiar letters, namely 46 different vowels. English sounds are vital to learners of this language, so you need to understand how and why they are used in speech.

As mentioned above, the hallmark of the English language is a large number of sounds that do not correspond to the number of letters available. That is, a syllable can express multiple vowels depending on the letters located next to each other. Based on this, it is necessary to speak very carefully and accurately. Misuse of a particular sound creates misunderstanding.

For example, the words "bed" and "bad" are almost identical in pronunciation and spelling, so it's easy to get confused. At this stage of learning English, many begin to transcribe pronunciation into their native tongue to facilitate the process of memorization.

However, this "relief" is very misleading, as it often creates even more confusion between words with similar pronunciations. After all, both the words "bed" and "bad" can be transposed exclusively as "bad" without reflecting the duality of sound. Therefore, it is better to learn the sounds in isolation.

How to learn English sounds correct?

Learning the phonetics of the English language will undoubtedly bring some clarity to the pronunciation and mastery of all the phrases and words that will come your way during training.

First, you should create a dictionary where you will specify all the sounds in traditional transcription, and then, next to them - their version of the sound in your native language.

It is also worth pointing out exceptional pronunciation cases, indicating that the word needs to be pronounced or written in a particular way, making it impossible to bring an analogy to your native language.

For convenience, vowels are divided into groups. For example, consonants, vowels, diphthongs, and triphthongs. You also need to practice and perform these types of exercises constantly:

For example, the main city of Great Britain is London. London - ['lʌndən] - 6 letters, 6 sounds. Let's find it on the map of England.

Where is it? Then, let's ask your friend: How do you write this? What is its spelling? Write this name for us:

[l] [cow] [n] [d:] [cow] [n] - london - [landen]

Thus, you will practice the pronunciation of sounds and learn valuable words and phrases in a foreign language.

And now, let's go straight to their writing and pronunciation.

Let's get acquainted with a brief description of all sounds using this table.

sound Pronunciation Vocal

[I] abbreviated [and] as in "out"

[And] [e] similar to - "w е st"

[] short [o] - "in о t "

[Ʊ] small, close [y]

[Ʌ] similar to Russian [a]

[ə] unsteady, close [uh]

[I:] looks like a long [and]

[ɑ:] deep and long [a] - "g а lka"

[ə:] = [ɜ:] Long [yo] in "Sv Ё art"

[You:] Tall [y] such as "B" У Elkea "

[ᴐ:] deep and long [o] - "d о lgo "

[Æ] Russian [e]

Diftogy (Two Ton)

[eı] [hey] - same

[ʊə] [ui] - poor

[əʊ] [oh] - tone

[ᴐı] [oops] - join

[एı] [ay] - kite

[ईə] [uh] - hair

[yes] [ie] - fear

Triftongs (three tons)

[एʊə] [au] - power

[जूə] [u] - European

[एɪə] [forward] - fire


[NS] Russian [b]

[V] conform [in]

[J] weak Russian [th]

[NS] how [d]

[w] short [y]

[K] [to] aspirate

[ɡ] How are you]

[WITH] How]

[ʤ] [D] and [W] together

[ʒ] how [w]

[THE] soft [l]

[NS] as M]

[N] like [n]

[N] [n] "in the nose"

[P] [n] aspirate

[R] weak [p]

[Tea] [t] aspirate

[NS] like [F]

[Hour] just exhale

[ʧ] How

[Ʃ] between [w] and [w]

[s] how c]

[D] Raised voice with [θ] voice

[Θ] Tongue tip between upper and lower teeth, no sound

Doubled Vowels & Diphthongs - Double vowels are read as one sound: moon - [mu: n] - [moon] or bitter - ['bitǝ] - [bit]

Voiced consonants in English, unlike Russian, do not become voiceless: in good [good], the sound [d] is pronounced clearly, as in [g] dog [dog], etc.

Meaning of correct pronunciation

As I said, it is imperative and indispensable to improve English pronunciation because many words in this language differ by only one or two sounds. But sometimes, even such a slight difference is essential for proper and precise contact with primary native speakers.


I repeat once again that some words with an almost identical sound need to be written down, their spellings memorized, and their pronunciation learned. Then, you can form phrases and sentences with them, pronouncing them continuously for better mastery and ease of learning.

For example, the word "row" can mean both "quarrel" and "row" at the same time, depending on how you pronounce them. To remove this ambiguity and remember the correct option, you need to make sentences or phrases with these words: a terrible row - a terrible quarrel, a row of apple trees - a quarrel of apple trees.

The only sure way to deliver a correct speech is listening and repetition with professional and live communication with native speakers. You can hear how the sounds are pronounced.


I know it seems overwhelming at the first moment you understand all of the effects of the English language may know when we are trying to figure it out for the English pronunciation patents. Still, I'm sure that you will improve your English fluency to the top level.

Remember, you have to use the correct tools and practice to listen and identify the sounds.

If you find yourself and choose to achieve this, I would like to recommend the English phonetics curse. It is an artificial intelligence platform that can help you achieve much more easily the English pronunciation.