Minimal Pair List Consonants /p/ versus /ŋ/, 84 pairs
The spelling of /p/ is always either <p> or <pp>. The /ŋ/ sound is spelled <ng> throughout. Since this sound only occurs after a vowel, the contrasts are all in syllable-final position. Inflected forms have been included although they are not strictly minimal, for reasons discussed under "Problems" in the main article.
The contrast is between a voiceless plosive and a voiced nasal continuant well apart in the mouth. It causes no problems.
Interesting pairs include:
The mean density value is very low at 0.7%. This is easily accounted for by the common occurrence of -ing forms of verbs, while words ending /ɪp/ are fairly uncommon, only around 180 of which nearly half are compound nouns ending in -ship . The list makes 36 semantic distinctions, a loading of 47%.
clap clang clapped clanged claps clangs clapping clanging clapper clanger clappers clangers clapper clangour clip cling clips clings clipping clinging fillip filling flip fling flipping flinging flips flings gap gang gaps gangs hap hang happing hanging haps hangs kip king kips kings lip ling lop long lopped longed lopping longing lops longs pap pang paps pangs Philip filling pip ping pipped pinged pipping pinging pips pings prop prong props prongs rap rang rip ring ripped ringed ripping ringing rips rings rip wring ripping wringing rips wrings sap sang sip sing sipping singing sips sings slap slang slapped slanged slapping slanging slaps slangs slip sling slipping slinging slips slings slipper slinger slippers slingers sop song sops songs strip string stripped stringed stripping stringing strips strings strop strong sup sung tap tang taps tangs tip ting tipped tinged tipping tinging tips tings topper Tonga trip Tring tup tongue tups tongues turnip turning whip wing whipped winged whipping winging whips wings wrap rang zip zing zipped zinged zipping zinging zips zings