Minimal Pair List Consonants /p/ versus /ŋ/, 84 pairs

   Minimal pair: Consonants /p/ versus /ŋ/, 84 pairs

The spelling of /p/ is always either <p> or <pp>. The /ŋ/ sound is spelled <ng> throughout. Since this sound only occurs after a vowel, the contrasts are all in syllable-final position. Inflected forms have been included although they are not strictly minimal, for reasons discussed under "Problems" in the main article.

The contrast is between a voiceless plosive and a voiced nasal continuant well apart in the mouth. It causes no problems.

Interesting pairs include:

fillip filling
topper Tonga
turnip turning

The mean density value is very low at 0.7%. This is easily accounted for by the common occurrence of -ing forms of verbs, while words ending /ɪp/ are fairly uncommon, only around 180 of which nearly half are compound nouns ending in -ship . The list makes 36 semantic distinctions, a loading of 47%.

clap clang 
  clapped clanged
  claps clangs
  clapping clanging 
clapper clanger 
  clappers clangers 
clapper clangour
clip cling 
  clips clings
  clipping clinging 
fillip filling
flip fling 
  flipping flinging 
  flips flings
gap gang 
  gaps gangs
hap hang 
  happing hanging 
  haps hangs
kip king 
  kips kings
lip ling 
lop long 
  lopped longed
  lopping longing 
  lops longs
pap pang 
  paps pangs
Philip filling
pip ping 
  pipped pinged
  pipping pinging 
  pips pings
prop prong 
  props prongs
rap rang 
rip ring 
  ripped ringed
  ripping ringing 
  rips rings
rip wring
  ripping wringing
  rips wrings
sap sang 
sip sing 
  sipping singing 
  sips sings
slap slang 
  slapped slanged
  slapping slanging 
  slaps slangs
slip sling 
  slipping slinging 
  slips slings
slipper slinger 
  slippers slingers 
sop song 
  sops songs
strip string 
  stripped stringed
  stripping stringing 
  strips strings
strop strong 
sup sung 
tap tang 
  taps tangs
tip ting 
  tipped tinged
  tipping tinging 
  tips tings
topper Tonga
trip Tring 
tup tongue 
  tups tongues
turnip turning 
whip wing
  whipped winged
  whipping winging
  whips wings
wrap rang
zip zing 
  zipped zinged
  zipping zinging
  zips zings